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We designed a phase I clinical trial of vaccinations with autologous glioma cells expressing transgene-derived interleukin-4 (IL-4), and treated one patient with a right temporal lobe recurrent glioblastoma. This 62-year-old man underwent craniotomy and partial tumor removal, at which time autologous tumor cells were obtained for vaccine preparation. After(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with high grade glioma, little is known regarding existence of naturally occurring adaptive T cell reactivity against glioma-associated antigens (GAAs). In this report, we characterized GAA-specific CD8+ T cells and innate immune cells in a patient who has survived with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) for over 12 years without recurrence.(More)
We investigated the protein expression of three glioma-associated antigens (GAAs) in pediatric brain stem glioma (BSG) and non-brain stem glioma (NBSG) cases with a view to their possible use in immunotherapy. Expression of EphA2, IL-13Ralpha2 and Survivin were studied by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissues using a series of 15 BSG cases and(More)
BACKGROUND The prognosis for malignant gliomas remains dismal. We addressed the safety, feasibility and preliminary clinical activity of the vaccinations using autologous glioma cells and interleukin (IL)-4 gene transfected fibroblasts. METHODS In University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) protocol 95-033, adult participants with recurrent(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 ligands serve as natural inducers of pro-inflammatory cytokines capable of promoting Type-1 adaptive immunity, and TLR3 is abundantly expressed by cells within the central nervous system (CNS). To improve the efficacy of vaccine strategies directed against CNS tumors, we evaluated whether administration of a TLR3 ligand,(More)
BACKGROUND Type-1 T cells are critical for effective anti-tumor immune responses. The recently discovered microRNAs (miRs) are a large family of small regulatory RNAs that control diverse aspects of cell function, including immune regulation. We identified miRs differentially regulated between type-1 and type-2 T cells, and determined how the expression of(More)
During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or(More)
BACKGROUND Expression of miR-17-92 enhances T-cell survival and interferon (IFN)-γ production. We previously reported that miR-17-92 is down-regulated in T-cells derived from glioblastoma (GBM) patients. We hypothesized that transgene-derived co-expression of miR17-92 and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in T-cells would improve the efficacy of adoptive(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and facilitate tumor growth. Precursors for these immune cell populations migrate to the tumor site in response to tumor secretion of chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), which was originally purified and(More)