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The unfolded protein response (UPR) controls the levels of molecular chaperones and enzymes involved in protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We recently isolated ATF6 as a candidate for mammalian UPR-specific transcription factor. We report here that ATF6 constitutively expressed as a 90-kDa protein (p90ATF6) is directly converted to a 50-kDa(More)
When unfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), transcription of glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) representing ER-resident molecular chaperones is markedly induced via the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. In contrast to recent progress in the analysis of yeast UPR, both cis-acting elements and transactivators responsible for(More)
Transcription of genes encoding molecular chaperones and folding enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is induced by accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. This intracellular signaling, known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), is mediated by the cis-acting ER stress response element (ERSE) in mammals. In addition to ER chaperones, the(More)
The injection of an antagonistic anti-murine c-kit monoclonal antibody ACK2 during mouse embryonic development produced three distinctive pigmentation patterns on the coat of the offspring. Pattern 1 consisted of pigmentation in craniofacial and caudal regions and was induced by an ACK2 injection between 9.5 and 11.5 days post coitum (dpc). In pattern 2,(More)
The tumour-necrosis-factor-family molecule osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL; also known as TRANCE, RANKL and ODF) has been identified as a potential osteoclast differentiation factor and regulator of interactions between T cells and dendritic cells in vitro. Mice with a disrupted opgl gene show severe osteopetrosis and a defect in tooth eruption, and completely(More)
Matrix proteolysis is thought to play a crucial role in several stages of tumor progression, including angiogenesis, and the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. We investigated the specific role of gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase 2) on these events using gelatinase A-deficient mice. In these mice, tumor-induced angiogenesis was suppressed(More)
Mice homozygous for the recessive mutation osteopetrosis (op) on chromosome 3 have a restricted capacity for bone remodelling, and are severely deficient in mature macrophages and osteoclasts. Both cell populations originate from a common haemopoietic progenitor. As op/op mice are not cured by transplants of normal bone marrow cells, the defects in op/op(More)
To gain insight into the abnormal phosphorylation of PHF-tau, we have determined the phosphorylation sites by identifying phosphopeptides by means of ion spray mass spectrometry followed by sequencing of ethane-thiol-modified peptides. Nineteen sites have been identified; all but Ser-262 are localized to the amino- and carboxyl-terminal flanking regions of(More)
In lymphocytes, the expression of early immune response genes is regulated by NF-AT transcription factors which translocate to the nucleus after dephosphorylation by the Ca2+-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. We report here that mice bearing a disruption in the NF-ATc gene fail to develop normal cardiac valves and septa and die of circulatory failure(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Covered self-expandable metal stents (EMS) were recently developed to overcome tumour ingrowth in conventional EMS. However, supporting evidence for the efficacy of covered EMS is lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS We enrolled 112 patients with unresectable distal biliary malignancies. They were randomly assigned to polyurethane covered (n =(More)