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Transcription of genes encoding molecular chaperones and folding enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is induced by accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. This intracellular signaling, known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), is mediated by the cis-acting ER stress response element (ERSE) in mammals. In addition to ER chaperones, the(More)
When unfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), transcription of glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) representing ER-resident molecular chaperones is markedly induced via the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. In contrast to recent progress in the analysis of yeast UPR, both cis-acting elements and transactivators responsible for(More)
The tumour-necrosis-factor-family molecule osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL; also known as TRANCE, RANKL and ODF) has been identified as a potential osteoclast differentiation factor and regulator of interactions between T cells and dendritic cells in vitro. Mice with a disrupted opgl gene show severe osteopetrosis and a defect in tooth eruption, and completely(More)
The injection of an antagonistic anti-murine c-kit monoclonal antibody ACK2 during mouse embryonic development produced three distinctive pigmentation patterns on the coat of the offspring. Pattern 1 consisted of pigmentation in craniofacial and caudal regions and was induced by an ACK2 injection between 9.5 and 11.5 days post coitum (dpc). In pattern 2,(More)
Matrix proteolysis is thought to play a crucial role in several stages of tumor progression, including angiogenesis, and the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. We investigated the specific role of gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase 2) on these events using gelatinase A-deficient mice. In these mice, tumor-induced angiogenesis was suppressed(More)
Mice homozygous for the recessive mutation osteopetrosis (op) on chromosome 3 have a restricted capacity for bone remodelling, and are severely deficient in mature macrophages and osteoclasts. Both cell populations originate from a common haemopoietic progenitor. As op/op mice are not cured by transplants of normal bone marrow cells, the defects in op/op(More)
To gain insight into the abnormal phosphorylation of PHF-tau, we have determined the phosphorylation sites by identifying phosphopeptides by means of ion spray mass spectrometry followed by sequencing of ethane-thiol-modified peptides. Nineteen sites have been identified; all but Ser-262 are localized to the amino- and carboxyl-terminal flanking regions of(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Covered self-expandable metal stents (EMS) were recently developed to overcome tumour ingrowth in conventional EMS. However, supporting evidence for the efficacy of covered EMS is lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS We enrolled 112 patients with unresectable distal biliary malignancies. They were randomly assigned to polyurethane covered (n =(More)
A monoclonal antibody, A7R34, that recognizes the high-affinity interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7Ra) and blocks the binding between IL-7 and IL-7Ra has been produced. Cell surface staining with A7R34 demonstrated that IL-7Ra is expressed in both B- and T-cell lineages. In the bone marrow, immature B-lineage cells that do not express surface IgM were IL-7Ra+. In(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy are both risk factors for gastric cancer. We aimed to elucidate the natural history of gastric cancer development according to H pylori infection and gastric atrophy status. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A total of 9293 participants in a mass health appraisal programme were candidates for(More)