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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Almost all aphid species (Homoptera, Insecta) have 60-80 huge cells called bacteriocytes, within which are round-shaped bacteria that are designated Buchnera. These bacteria are maternally transmitted to eggs and embryos through host generations, and the mutualism between the host and the bacteria is so obligate that neither can reproduce independently.(More)
BACKGROUND Use of the conventional Western and Japanese classification systems of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia results in large differences among pathologists in the diagnosis of oesophageal, gastric, and colorectal neoplastic lesions. AIM To develop common worldwide terminology for gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia. METHODS Thirty one(More)
BACKGROUND The magnifying colonoscope allows 100-fold magnified viewing of the colonic surface. METHODS We examined 2050 colorectal tumorous lesions by magnifying endoscopy, stereomicroscopy, and histopathology and classified these lesions according to pit pattern. Based on stereomicroscopy, lesions with a type 1 or 2 pit pattern were nontumors, whereas(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish an appropriate steroid treatment regimen for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). METHODS A retrospective survey of AIP treatment was conducted in 17 centres in Japan. The main outcome measures were rate of remission and relapse. RESULTS Of 563 patients with AIP, 459 (82%) received steroid treatment. The remission rate of(More)
Synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], a signaling phospholipid, is primarily carried out by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase [PI(4)P5K], which has been reported to be regulated by RhoA and Rac1. Unexpectedly, we find that the GTPgammaS-dependent activator of PI(4)P5Kalpha is the small G protein ADP-ribosylation factor(More)
A new temperature measurement procedure using phase mapping was developed that makes use of the temperature dependence of the water proton chemical shift. Highly accurate and fast measurements were obtained during phantom and in vivo experiments. In the pure water phantom experiments, an accuracy of more than +/- 0.5 degrees C was obtained within a few(More)
We screened a cDNA library of germinating rice seeds with a cDNA for aleurain (cysteine proteinase from barley) and obtained three distinct types of cDNA clones encoding three species of cysteine proteinases (oryzains alpha, beta, and gamma). The deduced amino acid sequences are distinct in part, but, on the whole, are similar to one another. The three(More)
Oryzacystatin (oryzacystatin-I) is a proteinaceous cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) in rice seeds and is the first well defined cystatin of plant origin. In this study we isolated cDNA clones for a new type of cystatin (oryzacystatin-II) in rice seeds by screening with the oryzacystatin-I cDNA probe. The newly isolated cDNA clone encodes 107 amino(More)
The nucleotide sequences of all genome segments of the Nilaparvata lugens reovirus (NLRV), which is found in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, have been determined and some genes have been assigned to structural and functional proteins. The genome of NLRV consists of 28 699 nucleotides and contains at least 11 large open reading frames (ORFs). The(More)