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Long-term potentiation (LTP), the increase in synaptic strength evoked by high-frequency stimulation, is often considered to be a cellular model for learning and memory. The validity of this model depends on the assumptions that physiological stimuli can induce LTP in vivo and that the resulting synaptic modifications correlate with behavioural changes.(More)
OBJECTIVES The pathophysiology of depression and anxiety in Parkinson's disease remains obscure. We aimed to compare the fractional anisotropy (FA) values of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without depression to investigate the nature of depression in PD. METHODS Twenty-eight patients were divided into two groups: those with depression and(More)
Depression is common in individuals with Parkinson's disease. However, the pathophysiology of depression in Parkinson's disease remains obscure. Here we compared brain perfusion images of Parkinson's disease patients with and without depression to investigate correlations between depression and brain perfusion images in Parkinson's disease. We divided 40(More)
We have previously reported that axon collaterals of posterior canal-activated excitatory vestibular (PC) neurons project to the contralateral oculomotor nucleus, and rostrally to the thalamus. To elucidate the vestibulothalamocortical pathways we investigated the synaptic connections of the PC neurons with the thalamic neurons by post-spike averaging of(More)
BACKGROUND Although excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received a great deal of attention, the underlying pathological mechanism of its development and the relative contributions of brain function to this process are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To compare the fractional anisotropy (FA) values of PD patients with EDS and(More)
OBJECTIVE Dementia occurs frequently in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the nature of the dementing process remains controversial. We evaluated various cognitive functions in patients with PD, compared fractional anisotropy (FA) values between PD patients with and without dementia. METHODS Thirty-seven consecutive patients with Hoehn-Yahr(More)
INTRODUCTION It is generally assumed that executive dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by degeneration of the basal ganglia or frontal cortex or both. However, there have been few studies investigating the relationship between executive dysfunctions and cerebral pathological change. The objective of this study was to evaluate various(More)
BACKGROUND Nature of the dementing process in Parkinson's disease, and particularly its relationship with Alzheimer's disease, diffuse Lewy body disease or frontal dementia remains controversial. OBJECTIVE We hypothesize that origins of dementia in Parkinson's disease are heterogeneous, so we compared cortical regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between(More)
This study was undertaken to investigate vestibulothalamocortical pathways in anesthetized cats. Synaptic connections of posterior canal-activated excitatory vestibuloocular relay (PC) neurons to thalamic neurons were examined by a spike-triggered averaging technique. The averaged potentials evoked in the ventrobasal complex of the thalamus revealed a(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. The recessively inherited familial PD genes PARK2 and PARK6 have been attributed to mutations in the Parkin and PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) genes, respectively. Recent reports(More)