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Mice were trained to avoid electric shock (0.6 mA) in a step-through type passive avoidance learning task, retention being measured 24 h after the training trial. Morphine 10 mg/kg administered 30 min before the test trial (pretest) facilitated memory retrieval, and the effect was completely antagonized by 1 mg/kg naloxone, a selective mu-opioid receptor(More)
OBJECTIVE Although many studies have shown that carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), it remains inconclusive whether assessment of carotid IMT is useful as a screening test for asymptomatic but severe CAD in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 333 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients(More)
The antinociceptive effect induced by exposure to socio-psychological (PSY) stress using a communication box was assessed by the formalin test in mice, compared with those by exposure to footshock (FS) stress and forced swimming (SW) stress. After the termination of stress exposure, whereas exposure to FS- and SW-stress resulted in the attenuation of the(More)
Inadequate beta-cell function is an essential component of all forms of diabetes. The most obvious problem is a failure to maintain sufficient beta-cell mass and function to cope with whatever insulin resistance is present. The most striking functional defect is a loss of acute glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). This review discusses the ways in(More)
Modulation of learning and memory acquisition, retention and retrieval in the one trial passive avoidance learning task in mice by three inescapable stresses, i.e., footshock (FS), psychological (PSY) and forced swimming (SW) were investigated. Pre-, post-training and pre-test FS-stress (2 mA, 0.2 Hz, 1 sec for 30 min) and pre-training PSY-stress(More)
Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent and serious metabolic disease all over the world, and its hallmarks are pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Under diabetic conditions, chronic hyperglycemia and subsequent augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) deteriorate beta-cell function and increase insulin resistance which leads to the(More)
The mechanism underlying the previous findings that the development of antinociceptive tolerance to morphine was significantly delayed in the presence of inflammatory pain induced by formalin was examined. Measurements of the pain threshold at different time intervals have shown that pain lasts around one week in the formalin treated mice. A single dose of(More)
The analgesic effect induced by exposure to psychological stress, using a communication box (psychological stress-induced analgesia, PSY-SIA), was completely antagonized by 10 min pretreatment with 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg of nor-binaltorphimine and with 0.5 and 1 mg/kg of Mr2266, selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonists, in the tail pinch method. Neither(More)
OBJECTIVE It is believed that disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent thrombus formation play critical roles in the pathogenesis of cerebral infarction. We simultaneously determined four relatively common genetic variants related to plaque rupture or subsequent local thrombus formation and evaluated the combined effect on cerebral(More)