Learn More
Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and possibly causes various forms of tissue damage in patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of oxidative stress in the progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the potential usefulness of antioxidants in the treatment of(More)
It is known well that activation of the hexosamine pathway causes insulin resistance, but how this activation influences pancreatic beta-cell function remains unclear. In this study, we found that in isolated rat islets adenovirus-mediated overexpression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the(More)
Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are observed in type 2 diabetes. Under diabetic conditions, oxidative stress and ER stress are induced in various tissues, leading to activation of the JNK pathway. This JNK activation suppresses insulin biosynthesis and interferes with insulin action. Indeed, suppression of the JNK pathway in diabetic(More)
The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase plays a primary role in the glucose-responsive secretion of insulin, and defects of this enzyme can cause NIDDM. As a step toward understanding the molecular basis of glucokinase (GK) gene regulation, we assessed the structure and regulation of the human GK gene beta-cell-type promoter. The results of reporter gene analyses(More)
Prolonged poor glycemic control in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients often leads to a decline in insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, accompanied by a decrease in the insulin content of the cells. As a step toward elucidating the pathophysiological background of the so-called glucose toxicity to pancreatic beta cells, we induced(More)
It has been shown that oxidative stress and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway induce the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of the pancreatic transcription factor PDX-1, which leads to pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. In this study, we have shown that the forkhead transcription factor Foxo1/FKHR plays a role as a mediator between the JNK(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Chronic hyperglycaemia in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus often leads to a decline in glucose-responsive insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, a phenomenon called glucose toxicity. Upon hyperglycaemia, glycation reaction occurs in the beta cells and induces oxidative stress. To understand the molecular(More)
Inadequate beta-cell function is an essential component of all forms of diabetes. The most obvious problem is a failure to maintain sufficient beta-cell mass and function to cope with whatever insulin resistance is present. The most striking functional defect is a loss of acute glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). This review discusses the ways in(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is believed to be an effector molecule that mediates interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced destruction and dysfunction of pancreatic beta-cells. We have demonstrated that both exogenous NO and NO generated endogenously by IL-1 beta brought about apoptosis of isolated rat pancreatic islet cells as well as pancreatic beta-cell tumor-derived cell(More)
Stimulation of insulin secretion by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) has been found to be diminished in type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that this impairment is due to a defect at the receptor level induced by the diabetic state, particularly hyperglycemia. Gene expression of incretin(More)