Learn More
The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase plays a primary role in the glucose-responsive secretion of insulin, and defects of this enzyme can cause NIDDM. As a step toward understanding the molecular basis of glucokinase (GK) gene regulation, we assessed the structure and regulation of the human GK gene beta-cell-type promoter. The results of reporter gene analyses(More)
It is known well that activation of the hexosamine pathway causes insulin resistance, but how this activation influences pancreatic beta-cell function remains unclear. In this study, we found that in isolated rat islets adenovirus-mediated overexpression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the(More)
Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are observed in type 2 diabetes. Under diabetic conditions, oxidative stress and ER stress are induced in various tissues, leading to activation of the JNK pathway. This JNK activation suppresses insulin biosynthesis and interferes with insulin action. Indeed, suppression of the JNK pathway in diabetic(More)
Inadequate beta-cell function is an essential component of all forms of diabetes. The most obvious problem is a failure to maintain sufficient beta-cell mass and function to cope with whatever insulin resistance is present. The most striking functional defect is a loss of acute glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). This review discusses the ways in(More)
Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and possibly causes various forms of tissue damage in patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of oxidative stress in the progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the potential usefulness of antioxidants in the treatment of(More)
Cisplatin treatment induces extensive death of the proximal tubules in mice. We also demonstrated that treatment of immortalized mouse proximal tubule cells (TKPTS) with 25 microM cisplatin induces apoptotic death in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that members of the MAPKs such as ERK, JNK, and p38 are all activated after cisplatin treatment both in vivo and(More)
Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent and serious metabolic disease affecting people all over the world. Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are the hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Normal beta-cells can compensate for insulin resistance by increasing insulin secretion and/or beta-cell mass, but insufficient compensation leads to the onset(More)
The JNK pathway is known to be activated in several tissues in the diabetic state, and is possibly involved in the development of insulin resistance and suppression of insulin biosynthesis. Here we show a potential new therapy for diabetes using cell-permeable JNK-inhibitory peptide. Intraperitoneal administration of the peptide led to its transduction into(More)
The AT-rich cis-motif A elements of the insulin gene promoter contribute to directing the gene's expression to pancreatic beta-cells, bound by a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, PDX-1/IPF1/STF-1/IDX-1. The islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP; amylin) gene, which is also expressed in limited tissues such as pancreatic beta- and delta-cells, contained(More)