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Inadequate beta-cell function is an essential component of all forms of diabetes. The most obvious problem is a failure to maintain sufficient beta-cell mass and function to cope with whatever insulin resistance is present. The most striking functional defect is a loss of acute glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). This review discusses the ways in(More)
OBJECTIVE Although many studies have shown that carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), it remains inconclusive whether assessment of carotid IMT is useful as a screening test for asymptomatic but severe CAD in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 333 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients(More)
Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent and serious metabolic disease all over the world, and its hallmarks are pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Under diabetic conditions, chronic hyperglycemia and subsequent augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) deteriorate beta-cell function and increase insulin resistance which leads to the(More)
Oxidative stress is induced in pancreatic beta-cells under diabetic conditions and causes beta-cell dysfunction. Antioxidant treatment of diabetic animals leads to recovery of insulin biosynthesis and increases the expression of its controlling transcription factor, pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1), in pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we show that PDX-1(More)
OBJECTIVE It is believed that disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent thrombus formation play critical roles in the pathogenesis of cerebral infarction. We simultaneously determined four relatively common genetic variants related to plaque rupture or subsequent local thrombus formation and evaluated the combined effect on cerebral(More)
OBJECTIVE The binding of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to their receptor (RAGE) plays an important role in the development of diabetic vascular complications. In the present study, we examined circulating endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) levels in subjects with type 1 diabetes and explored the possible association between esRAGE levels and the(More)
The pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1), also known as IDX-1/STF-1/IPF1, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, plays a central role in regulating pancreatic development and insulin gene transcription. Furthermore, even in adults, PDX-1 is associated with islet neogenesis and differentiation of insulin-producing cells from progenitor(More)
1 OBJECTIVE—Islet ␤-cells loose their ability to synthesize insulin under diabetic conditions, which is at least partially due to the decreased activity of insulin transcription factors such as MafA. Although an in vitro study showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) decrease MafA expression, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. In this study,(More)
I t is well known that postchallenge and postprandial hyperglycemia are related to the progression of diabetic macroan-giopathy (1– 6). However, there is little information regarding the association between diabetic microangiopathy and postprandial hyperglycemia in human subjects. In this study, we performed a follow-up study to elucidate the relationship(More)