Hideaki E. Kato

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China has one of the highest carrier prevalences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the world: nearly 10% of the general population. The disease burden of HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is also believed to be among the world's largest, and that of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is likely to be substantial as well. However, the epidemiology(More)
Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are light-gated cation channels derived from algae that have shown experimental utility in optogenetics; for example, neurons expressing ChRs can be optically controlled with high temporal precision within systems as complex as freely moving mammals. Although ChRs have been broadly applied to neuroscience research, little is known(More)
The entire nucleotide sequences of 70 hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates of genotype B (HBV/B), including 38 newly determined and 32 retrieved from the international DNA database (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank), were compared phylogenetically. Two subgroups of HBV/B were identified based on sequence divergence in the precore region plus the core gene, one with the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates of genotype B (HBV/B) with or without the recombination with genotype C over the precore region plus core gene have been reported. METHODS All the 41 HBV/B isolates having the recombination with genotype C (HBV/Ba) possessed the nucleotide 1838 of A in contrast to that of G in all 29 of those without the(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) was detected in sera from four individuals by polymerase chain reaction with hemi-nested primers deduced from an insertion of 36 nt in the core gene that is specific for this genotype. Despite two stop codons in the precore region characteristic of HBV/G, all patients were positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)(More)
Proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POTs) are major facilitator superfamily (MFS) proteins that mediate the uptake of peptides and peptide-like molecules, using the inwardly directed H(+) gradient across the membrane. The human POT family transporter peptide transporter 1 is present in the brush border membrane of the small intestine and is involved(More)
Eight hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates of genotype G were recovered from patients and sequenced over the entire genome. Six of them had a genomic length of 3,248 bp and two had genomic lengths of 3,239 bp (USG15) and 3,113 bp (USG18) due to deletions. The 10 HBV/G isolates, including the 8 sequenced isolates as well as the original isolate (AF160501) and(More)
Activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To shed light on the structural basis for μOR activation, here we report a 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structure of the murine μOR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and a G protein mimetic camelid antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the μOR(More)
OBJECTIVE Apelin is an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor, APJ, and participates in multiple physiological processes. To identify the roles of endogenous apelin, we investigated the phenotype of apelin-deficient (apelin-KO) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS Apelin-KO mice showed impaired retinal vascularization and ocular development, which were(More)
NarK belongs to the nitrate/nitrite porter (NNP) family in the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and plays a central role in nitrate uptake across the membrane in diverse organisms, including archaea, bacteria, fungi and plants. Although previous studies provided insight into the overall structure and the substrate recognition of NarK, its molecular(More)