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Connexins, the protein molecules forming gap junction channels, are reduced in number or redistributed from intercalated disks to lateral cell borders in a variety of cardiac diseases. This "gap junction remodeling" is considered to be arrhythmogenic. Using a simple model of human ventricular myocardium, we found that quantitative remodeling data extracted(More)
The electrical properties of gap junctions in cell pairs are usually studied by means of the dual voltage clamp method. The voltage across the junctional channels, however, cannot be controlled adequately due to an artificial resistance and a natural resistance, both connected in series with the gap junction. The access resistances to the cell interior of(More)
We have used pairs of cardiac cells (i.e., one real guinea pig ventricular cell and a real-time simulation of a numerical model of a guinea pig ventricular cell) to evaluate the effects on action potential conduction of a variable coupling conductance in combination with agents that either increase or decrease the magnitude of the L-type calcium current.(More)
In this study we report about the modulation of connexin45 (Cx45) gap junction channel properties by phosphorylation of the connexin molecules through different protein kinases. Phosphorylation of Cx45 was studied in HeLa cells transfected with mouse Cx45 (mCx45). Using Western blotting (WB) and immunocytochemistry, these cells were found exclusively(More)
In comparison to the cellular basis of pacemaking, the electrical interactions mediating synchronization and conduction in the sinoatrial node are poorly understood. Therefore, we have taken a combined immunohistochemical and electrophysiological approach to characterize gap junctions in the nodal area. We report that the pacemaker myocytes in the center of(More)
The effects of an increase in intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP)-concentration on gap junctional current (Ij) were studied in cultured neonatal rat heart cells using both the whole-cell and perforated patch voltage-clamp method. In whole-cell measurements, exposure to 8-bromo-cGMP or carbachol reduced Ij. With the perforated patch technique, on the other hand,(More)
A review of the experimental literature reveals that there are essentially three qualitatively different ways in which spontaneous activity in the sinoatrial node can be abolished. We show that these three ways also occur in an ionic model of space-clamped nodal membrane. In one of these three ways, injection of a current pulse abolishes ("annihilates")(More)
Studies on physiological modulation of intercellular communication mediated by protein kinases are often complicated by the fact that cells express multiple gap junction proteins (connexins; Cx). Changes in cell coupling can be masked by simultaneous opposite regulation of the gap junction channel types expressed. We have examined the effects of activators(More)
BACKGROUND Connexin (Cx)40 and Cx45 are the major protein subunits of gap junction channels in the conduction system of mammals. To determine the role of Cx40, we correlated cardiac activation with Connexin distribution in normal and Cx40-deficient mice hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS Epicardial and septal activation was recorded in Langendorff-perfused adult(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been postulated that high atrial rate induced changes at the level of the gap junctions ('gap junctional remodeling', i.e. changes in distribution, intercellular orientation and expression of gap junction proteins), could be part of the vicious circle of electrophysiologic and structural changes leading to sustained atrial fibrillation(More)