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OBJECTIVES This study examined maturation of mismatch responses (MMRs) to an English vowel contrast (/I/ versus /ε/) in 4- to 7-yr-old children. DESIGN Event-related potentials were recorded to a standard [ε] and deviant [I] vowel presented in trains of 10 stimuli at a rate of 1/650 msecs and with an intertrain interval of 1.5 secs. Each train contained(More)
OBJECTIVE The length of the temporal window integrating successive auditory stimuli into unitary percepts has been estimated to be less than 200 ms in adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the development of the integrating window in children to determine whether it is similar to young adults. METHODS A modified auditory oddball paradigm was(More)
The effects of morphine on memory have been shown to be dependent on the strain of animal used and on the experimental parameters. Memory was assessed in a passive avoidance task using Swiss albino (ICRC) mice. Morphine at doses of 1, 3 and 10 mg kg-1 was administered immediately after foot shock (memory retention) or 23.5 h after foot shock (memory(More)
We used neurophysiological and behavioral measures to examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) have deficits in automatic processing of brief, phonetically similar vowels, and whether attention plays a role in such deficits. The neurophysiological measure mismatch negativity (MMN) was used as an index of discrimination in two tasks;(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim was to determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differed from children with typical language development (TLD) in their allocation of attention to speech sounds. METHODS Event-related potentials were recorded to non-target speech sounds in two tasks (passive-watch a video and attend to target tones among speech(More)
Experimental evidence suggests an important role of serotonin in the process of learning and memory. The present study investigated the effect of 5HT3-receptor antagonist (ICS 205-930) on retrieval of a previously learned aversive habit in the mouse. The effect of ICS 205-930 on scopolamine (3 mg/kg) induced amnesia was also studied. ICS 205-930 (1, 10 &(More)
The goal of this paper was to examine intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to the development of speech perception in monolingual and bilingual infants and toddlers. A substantial number of behavioral studies have characterized when infants show changes in behavior towards speech sounds in relation to amount of experience with these sounds. However,(More)
PURPOSE The authors investigated the neurophysiological bases of vowel perception in children with specific language impairment (SLI) compared with typical language development (TLD) controls using 250-ms phonetically similar vowels. In a previous study, children with SLI showed a poor neurophysiological response (the mismatch negativity [MMN]) to 50-ms(More)
In this review, we consider the literature on sensitive periods for language acquisition from the perspective of the stroke recovery literature treated in this Special Issue. Conceptually, the two areas of study are linked in a number of ways. For example, the fact that learning itself can set the stage for future failures to learn (in second language(More)
The ability to learn second language speech sound categories declines during development. We examined this phenomenon by studying the mismatch negativity (MMN) to the /r/ - /l/ distinction in native English speakers and learners of English as a second language who are native speakers of Japanese. Previous studies have suggested that the MMN is remarkably(More)