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Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This(More)
Human cytochrome (CYP)2B6 cDNA was cloned and expressed in bacteria and in yeast. Its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enabled us to obtain, at a high level, an active yeast-expressed CYP2B6 protein, so as to assess its role in the metabolism of ethoxyresorufin, pentoxyresorufin, benzyloxyresorufin, ethoxycoumarin, testosterone and cyclophosphamide.(More)
The calcium channel blocker nifedipine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4, which is present in liver and mucosa of the small bowel. Cytochrome P450 3A4 is inducible by the tuberculostatic rifampin in liver and the small bowel. The contribution of gut wall metabolism to total clearance of nifedipine before and during induction has not been determined in(More)
Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167(More)
Recent data point to the contribution of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to digoxin elimination. On the basis of clinical observations of patients in whom digoxin levels decreased considerably when treated with rifampin, we hypothesized that concomitant rifampin therapy may affect digoxin disposition in humans by induction of P-gp. We compared single-dose (1 mg oral(More)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem, and recent genetic studies have identified common CKD susceptibility variants. The CKDGen consortium performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 67,093 individuals of European ancestry from 20 predominantly population-based studies in order to identify new susceptibility(More)
The importance of the ATP-dependent transporter P-glycoprotein, which is expressed in the brush border membrane of enterocytes and in other tissues with excretory function, for overall drug disposition is well recognized. For example, induction of intestinal P-glycoprotein by rifampin appears to be the underlying mechanism of decreased plasma concentrations(More)
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which metabolize numerous drugs, are expressed both in liver and in extrahepatic tissues. CYP3A4 for example is present and inducible by rifampin in epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. It has been shown that such prehepatic metabolism contributes substantially to total clearance of CYP3A4 substrates (e.g.,(More)
Associations of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variants and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been reported in earlier studies; in one of the studies associations with IQ and daily living skills were found additionally. Variations of the oxytocin receptor gene might also regulate affect, attachment and separation beyond the diagnostic borders of autism.(More)
The calcium channel blocker verapamil[2,8-bis-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-isopropyl-6- azaoctanitrile] is widely used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris and cardiac arrhythmias. The drug undergoes extensive and variable hepatic metabolism in man with the major metabolic steps comprising formation of D-617(More)