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Topology processing is indispensable basic function in order to generate a real-time BUS-BRANCH model in Energy Management Systems, because this model is necessary to the operation of application software such as state estimation and etc. At this time, if an error occurs in status information of switch, the result of state estimation is seriously(More)
The reactive power which is entirely different from frequency has local characteristics. In the past, it is managed by the manual operation in a local reactive power control station. Since coordination or integrated control was possible due to the recent advances in computers and communication networks, the hierarchical voltage control system, consisting of(More)
This paper describes a new methodology for grid expansion planning considering the probabilistic reliability of a composite power system including wind turbine generators (WTG). The proposed model includes capacity limitations and transmission line unavailability. The importance of renewable energy sources has been growing at a rapid rate due to(More)
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