Learn More
As acute infections resolve, effector CD8(+) T cells differentiate into interleukin-7 receptor(lo) (IL-7R(lo)) short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and IL-7R(hi) memory precursor effector cells (MPECs) capable of generating long-lived memory CD8(+) T cells. By using another SLEC marker, KLRG1, we found that KLRG1(hi) effector cells began appearing early(More)
The coexistence of two phylogenetically distinct symbiont species within a single cell, a condition not previously known in any metazoan, is demonstrated in the gills of a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent mussel (family Mytilidae). Large and small symbiont morphotypes within the gill bacteriocytes are shown to be separate bacterial species by molecular(More)
The ischemically injured kidney undergoes tubular cell necrosis and apoptosis, accompanied by an interstitial inflammatory cell infiltrate. In this study, we show that iNos-positive proinflammatory (M1) macrophages are recruited into the kidney in the first 48 hours after ischemia/reperfusion injury, whereas arginase 1- and mannose receptor-positive,(More)
Autophagy is known to be important in presentation of cytosolic antigens on MHC class II (MHC II). However, the role of autophagic process in antigen presentation in vivo is unclear. Mice with dendritic cell (DC)-conditional deletion in Atg5, a key autophagy gene, showed impaired CD4(+) T cell priming after herpes simplex virus infection and succumbed to(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) detect viruses in the acidified endosomes by means of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Yet, pDC responses to certain single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses occur only after live viral infection. We present evidence here that the recognition of such viruses by TLR7 requires transport of cytosolic viral replication intermediates(More)
Influenza virus infection is recognized by the innate immune system through Toll like receptor (TLR) 7 and retinoic acid inducible gene I. These two recognition pathways lead to the activation of type I interferons and resistance to infection. In addition, TLR signals are required for the CD4 T cell and IgG2a, but not cytotoxic T lymphocyte, responses to(More)
Hassall's corpuscles-first described in the human thymus over 150 years ago-are groups of epithelial cells within the thymic medulla. The physical nature of these structures differs between mammalian species. Although Hassall's corpuscles have been proposed to act in both the removal of apoptotic thymocytes and the maturation of developing thymocytes within(More)
Autophagy is a highly conserved process that maintains homeostasis by clearing damaged organelles and long-lived proteins. The consequences of deficiency in autophagy manifest in a variety of pathological states including neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. Here, we studied the role of autophagy in the homeostatic regulation of(More)
Innate immune recognition of pathogens triggers both immediate defenses against the invading pathogens and the initiation of adaptive immune responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in sensing and processing microbial information and directing the differentiation of naïve lymphocytes to effector cells suitable against particular types of infections.(More)
Autophagy is an ancient pathway designed to maintain cellular homeostasis by degrading long-lived proteins and organelles in the cytosol. Recent studies demonstrate that autophagy is utilized by the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems to combat viral infections. Autophagy plays a key role in recognizing signatures of viral infection, and(More)