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Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) detect viruses in the acidified endosomes by means of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Yet, pDC responses to certain single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses occur only after live viral infection. We present evidence here that the recognition of such viruses by TLR7 requires transport of cytosolic viral replication intermediates(More)
Influenza virus infection is recognized by the innate immune system through Toll like receptor (TLR) 7 and retinoic acid inducible gene I. These two recognition pathways lead to the activation of type I interferons and resistance to infection. In addition, TLR signals are required for the CD4 T cell and IgG2a, but not cytotoxic T lymphocyte, responses to(More)
Hassall's corpuscles-first described in the human thymus over 150 years ago-are groups of epithelial cells within the thymic medulla. The physical nature of these structures differs between mammalian species. Although Hassall's corpuscles have been proposed to act in both the removal of apoptotic thymocytes and the maturation of developing thymocytes within(More)
Autophagy is a specialized cellular pathway involved in maintaining homeostasis by degrading long-lived cellular proteins and organelles. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy is utilized by immune systems to protect host cells from invading pathogens and regulate uncontrolled immune responses. During pathogen recognition, induction of autophagy(More)
Although mucosal surfaces represent the main portal of entry for pathogens, the mechanism of antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) that patrol various mucosal tissues remains unclear. Instead, much effort has focused on the understanding of initiation of immune responses generated against antigens delivered by injection. We examined the(More)
Infl uenza virus is responsible for annual epidemics that cause severe morbidity and death involving approximately fi ve million people worldwide. Lethal pneumonia and encepha-lopathy caused by infl uenza virus have now become a serious problem, especially among the elderly and children, respectively (1). Furthermore , the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian infl(More)
There is growing interest in identifying regulators of autophagy. The molecular mechanism underlying transforming growth factor-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-induced autophagy is poorly understood. We found that TAK1 inhibits p70 S6 kinase1 (S6K1) phosphorylation by interfering interaction of raptor with S6K1, thus inducing autophagy. The factors that(More)
Respiratory viruses can induce acute respiratory disease. Clinical symptoms and manifestations are dependent on interactions between the virus and host immune system. Dendritic cells (DCs), along with alveolar macrophages, constitute the first line of sentinel cells in the innate immune response against respiratory viral infection. DCs play an essential(More)