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Influenza virus infection is recognized by the innate immune system through Toll like receptor (TLR) 7 and retinoic acid inducible gene I. These two recognition pathways lead to the activation of type I interferons and resistance to infection. In addition, TLR signals are required for the CD4 T cell and IgG2a, but not cytotoxic T lymphocyte, responses to(More)
Although mucosal surfaces represent the main portal of entry for pathogens, the mechanism of antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) that patrol various mucosal tissues remains unclear. Instead, much effort has focused on the understanding of initiation of immune responses generated against antigens delivered by injection. We examined the(More)
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