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OBJECTIVE Practical use of the glycaemic index (GI), as recommended by the FAO/WHO, requires an evaluation of the recommended method. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and sources of variation of the GI values obtained by experienced investigators in different international centres. DESIGN GI values of four centrally provided foods (instant(More)
BACKGROUND Many black persons in South Africa have been subjected to urbanisation and urbanisation has led to a significant increase in diseases of lifestyle. The determinants of hypertension in a population in transition have not been well-defined and there is a pressing need for observational epidemiological studies as well as randomised-controlled trials(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the available data on risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the influence of urbanisation of Africans on these risk factors, and to examine why stroke emerges as a higher risk than ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in the health transition of black South Africans. DESIGN A review of published data on mortality from and risk(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare active and passive coping strategies of Africans with perception of own health and cardiovascular data. The subjects included 236 apparently healthy Africans (men=109; women=127). The COPE questionnaire was adapted, translated and validated for Africans. Scores on reliable sub-scales were used to classify men and(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) in South Africa was to determine the nutrient intakes and anthropometric status of children (1-9 years old), as well as factors that influence their dietary intake. DESIGN This was a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of all children aged 1-9 years in South Africa.(More)
Hydrogen gas, which is produced during fermentation in the human colon, is either excreted in breath or metabolised by gut bacteria through a variety of pathways. These may include methanogenesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction, and acetogenesis. To determine which of these routes predominates in the large intestine, stools were taken from 30 healthy(More)
BACKGROUND Longitudinal cohort studies in sub-Saharan Africa are urgently needed to understand cardiovascular disease development. We, therefore, explored health behaviours and conventional risk factors of African individuals with optimal blood pressure (BP) (≤ 120/80 mm Hg), and their 5-year prediction for the development of hypertension. METHODS The(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the relative validity of the culture-sensitive quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed for the Transition, Health and Urbanisation in South Africa (THUSA) study by 7-day weighed food records, urinary nitrogen excretion and basal metabolic rate (BMR). DESIGN A cross-sectional study. SETTING A community-based(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop and assess the reproducibility of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) sensitive to the culture of the African population of the North West Province, South Africa. DESIGN A cross-sectional study. SETTING A community-based field study in a population stratified according to level of urbanization from deep rural to urban(More)