Hesham F. Nawar

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Noroviruses are the major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. However, little is known regarding the norovirus life cycle, including cell binding and entry. In contrast to human noroviruses, the recently discovered murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) readily infects murine macrophages and dendritic cells in culture. Many viruses, including the related(More)
A plethora of human pathogens invade and/or colonize mucosal surfaces. Elaboration of strong, protective immune responses against those pathogens by mucosal vaccination, however, is hampered by endogenous regulatory systems in the mucosae that dampen responses to foreign antigens (Ags). To overcome those natural barriers, mucosal adjuvants must be employed.(More)
The variable efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) vaccines and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) emphasize the urgency for not only generating new and more effective vaccines against TB but also understanding the underlying mechanisms that mediate vaccine-induced protection. We demonstrate that mucosal adjuvants, such as(More)
Two families of bacterial heat-labile enterotoxins (HLTs) have been described: the type I HLTs are comprised of cholera toxin (CT) of Vibrio cholerae, LT-I of Escherichia coli, and several related HLTs; the type II HLTs are comprised of LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Herein, we report LT-IIc, a new type II HLT encoded from an enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strain(More)
LT-IIa and LT-IIb, the type II heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli, are closely related in structure and function to cholera toxin and LT-I, the type I heat-labile enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and E. coli, respectively. Recent studies from our group demonstrated that LT-IIa and LT-IIb are potent systemic and mucosal adjuvants. To determine(More)
The pentameric B subunit of type IIb Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT-IIb-B(5)), a doughnut-shaped oligomeric protein from enterotoxigenic E. coli, activates the TLR2/TLR1 heterodimer (TLR2/1). We investigated the molecular basis of the LT-IIb-B(5) interaction with TLR2/1 to define the structure-function relationship of LT-IIb-B(5) and, moreover, to gain an(More)
The type IIb heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-IIb) and its nontoxic pentameric B subunit (LT-IIb-B(5)) display different immunomodulatory activities, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. We investigated mechanisms whereby the absence of the catalytically active A subunit from LT-IIb-B(5) renders this molecule immunostimulatory(More)
Innate recognition and signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is facilitated by functionally associated coreceptors, although the cooperativity mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As a model we investigated TLR2 interactions with the GD1a ganglioside binding subunit of type IIb Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT-IIb-B(5)). Both LT-IIb-B(5) and a GD1a(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) and the type II heat-labile enterotoxins (LT-IIa and LT-IIb) are potent immunological adjuvants which are hypothesized to enhance the production of antibody (Ab)-secreting cells, although their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. The treatment of splenic cells with concanavalin A (ConA) plus CT enhanced the production of(More)
The pentameric B subunit of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-IIb-B(5)) is a potent signaling molecule capable of modulating innate immune responses. It has previously been shown that LT-IIb-B(5), but not the LT-IIb-B(5) Ser74Asp variant [LT-IIb-B(5)(S74D)], activates Toll-like receptor (TLR2) signaling in macrophages. Consistent(More)