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The cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) contributes to ischemic, excitotoxic, and traumatic brain injury. IL-1beta actions depend on interaction with a single receptor (IL-1RI), which associates with an accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and is blocked by IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Here we show that in normal mice [wild-type (WT)],(More)
The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain damage. Evidence to date suggests that the major form of IL-1 contributing to ischemic injury is IL-1beta rather than IL-1alpha, but this has not been tested directly. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of transient cerebral(More)
Several studies have demonstrated that antagonists of the corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) receptor markedly inhibit experimentally induced excitotoxic, ischaemic and traumatic brain injury in the rat, and that CRF expression is elevated in response to experimentally induced stroke or traumatic brain injury. CRF is also induced by the pro-inflammatory(More)
Inflammation has long been proposed as having a role in AD (Alzheimer's disease), although it remains unclear whether inflammation represents a cause or consequence of AD. Evidence from the clinical setting in support of a role for inflammation in AD includes increased expression of inflammatory mediators and microglial activation in the post-mortem AD(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has pleiotropic actions in the central nervous system. During the last decade, a growing corpus of evidence has indicated an important role of this cytokine in the development of brain damage following cerebral ischaemia. The expression of IL-1 in the brain is dramatically increased during the early and chronic stage of infarction. The(More)
The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), contributes to neuronal inflammation and cell death induced by ischemia, excitotoxicity, or trauma, while administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) reduces neuronal injury. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that endogenous IL-1ra is neuroprotective in vivo and in vitro, and(More)
The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain damage. Evidence to date suggests that the major form of IL-1 contributing to ischemic injury is IL-1␤ rather than IL-1␣, but this has not been tested directly. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of transient cerebral ischemia [30(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in neuroimmune responses and has pleiotropic actions in the brain. Compelling evidence has shown that IL-1 is a major mediator of inflammation and the progression of cell death in response to brain injury and cerebral ischemia. Its expression is strongly increased in these pathological conditions, and central(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) exerts a number of diverse actions in the brain, and it is currently well accepted that it contributes to experimentally induced neurodegeneration. Much of this is based on studies using the IL-1 receptor antagonist, which inhibits cell death caused by ischemia, brain injury, or excitotoxins. Our aim is to determine how and where in the(More)
Neuroprotective strategies for ischemic stroke have failed to translate from bench to bedside, possibly due to the lack of consideration of key clinical co-morbidities. Stroke and co-morbidities are associated with raised levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). Inhibition of IL-1 by the administration of interleukin-1 receptor(More)