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All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from(More)
The ability to respond rapidly to changes in temperature is critical for insects and other ectotherms living in variable environments. In a physiological process termed rapid cold-hardening (RCH), exposure to nonlethal low temperature allows many insects to significantly increase their cold tolerance in a matter of minutes to hours. Additionally, there are(More)
A common physiological response of organisms to environmental stresses is the increase in expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps). In insects, this process has been widely examined for heat stress, but the response to cold stress has been far less studied. In the present study, we focused on 11 Drosophila melanogaster Hsp genes during the stress exposure(More)
Among terrestrial organisms, arthropods are especially susceptible to dehydration, given their small body size and high surface area to volume ratio. This challenge is particularly acute for polar arthropods that face near-constant desiccating conditions, as water is frozen and thus unavailable for much of the year. The molecular mechanisms that govern(More)
When insects are exposed to fluctuating thermal regimes (FTRs) (i.e., cold exposure alternating with periodic short pulses to high temperature), in contrast to constant low temperature (CLT), mortality due to accumulation of chill injuries is markedly reduced. To investigate the physiological processes behind the positive impact of FTR, based on a holistic(More)
To protect cells from the damaging effects of environmental stresses, all organisms possess a universal stress response involving upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps). The mechanisms underlying chilling injuries and the subsequent recovery phase are only beginning to be understood in insects. Hsp22 and Hsp23 are both upregulated during the recovery(More)
Immobilization of insects is necessary for various experimental purposes, and CO(2) exposure remains the most popular anaesthetic method in entomological research. A number of negative side effects of CO(2) anaesthesia have been reported, but CO(2) probably brings about metabolic modifications that are poorly known. In this work, we used GC/MS-based(More)
BACKGROUND Diapause, a condition of developmental arrest and metabolic depression exhibited by a wide range of animals is accompanied by complex physiological and biochemical changes that generally enhance environmental stress tolerance and synchronize reproduction. Even though some aspects of diapause have been well characterized, very little is known(More)
Environmental stress deleteriously affects every aspect of an ectotherm's biological function. Frequent exposure of terrestrial insects to temperature variation has thus led to the evolution of protective biochemical and physiological mechanisms. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the positive impact of fluctuating thermal regimes (FTRs) on(More)
The phenotypic effects of rearing temperature on several fitness components of the koinobiont parasitoid, Aphidius colemani, were examined. Temperatures experienced during development induced a plastic linear response in the dry and fat masses of the immature stage and a non-linear response in the growth rate as well as in the size of adults. We(More)