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The cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) contributes to ischemic, excitotoxic, and traumatic brain injury. IL-1beta actions depend on interaction with a single receptor (IL-1RI), which associates with an accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and is blocked by IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Here we show that in normal mice [wild-type (WT)],(More)
The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain damage. Evidence to date suggests that the major form of IL-1 contributing to ischemic injury is IL-1beta rather than IL-1alpha, but this has not been tested directly. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of transient cerebral(More)
Chronic systemic inflammatory conditions, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity are associated with increased risk of stroke, which suggests that systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of stroke in humans. The hypothesis that systemic inflammation may induce brain pathology can be tested in animals, and this was the key objective of(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has pleiotropic actions in the central nervous system. During the last decade, a growing corpus of evidence has indicated an important role of this cytokine in the development of brain damage following cerebral ischaemia. The expression of IL-1 in the brain is dramatically increased during the early and chronic stage of infarction. The(More)
Several studies have demonstrated that antagonists of the corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) receptor markedly inhibit experimentally induced excitotoxic, ischaemic and traumatic brain injury in the rat, and that CRF expression is elevated in response to experimentally induced stroke or traumatic brain injury. CRF is also induced by the pro-inflammatory(More)
Inflammation has long been proposed as having a role in AD (Alzheimer's disease), although it remains unclear whether inflammation represents a cause or consequence of AD. Evidence from the clinical setting in support of a role for inflammation in AD includes increased expression of inflammatory mediators and microglial activation in the post-mortem AD(More)
UNLABELLED The induction of neuroinflammatory processes, characterized by upregulation of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) expressed by microglial cells, is well correlated with neurodegenerative diseases and with acute neuronal loss. The continually increasing incidence of neurodegenerative diseases in developed countries has become a major(More)
The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), contributes to neuronal inflammation and cell death induced by ischemia, excitotoxicity, or trauma, while administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) reduces neuronal injury. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that endogenous IL-1ra is neuroprotective in vivo and in vitro, and(More)
PURPOSE Neuroinflammation is involved in several brain disorders and can be monitored through expression of the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) on activated microglia. In recent years, several new PET radioligands for TSPO have been evaluated in disease models. [(18)F]DPA-714 is a TSPO radiotracer with great promise; however results vary between(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in neuroimmune responses and has pleiotropic actions in the brain. Compelling evidence has shown that IL-1 is a major mediator of inflammation and the progression of cell death in response to brain injury and cerebral ischemia. Its expression is strongly increased in these pathological conditions, and central(More)