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The siRNA pathway is an essential antiviral mechanism in insects. Whether other RNA interference pathways are involved in antiviral defense remains unclear. Here, we report in cells derived from the two main vectors for arboviruses, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the production of viral small RNAs that exhibit the hallmarks of ping-pong derived(More)
No therapeutics or vaccines currently exist for human coronaviruses (HCoVs). The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) epidemic in 2002-2003, and the recent emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in April 2012, emphasize the high probability of future zoonotic HCoV emergence causing severe and(More)
How persistent viral infections are established and maintained is widely debated and remains poorly understood. We found here that the persistence of RNA viruses in Drosophila melanogaster was achieved through the combined action of cellular reverse-transcriptase activity and the RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) pathway. Fragments of diverse RNA viruses(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the absence of internal membranes, the nucleus of eukaryotic cells is spatially organized, with chromosomes and individual loci occupying dynamic, but nonrandom, spatial positions relative to nuclear landmarks and to each other. These positional preferences correlate with gene expression and DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Yet(More)
Understanding how a pathogen colonizes and adapts to a new host environment is a primary aim in studying emerging infectious diseases. Adaptive mutations arise among the thousands of variants generated during RNA virus infection, and identifying these variants will shed light onto how changes in tropism and species jumps can occur. Here, we adapted(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical case treatment of malaria infections where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are sympatric has achieved effective reductions in P. falciparum prevalence and incidence rates, but has been less successful for P. vivax. The high transmissibility of P. vivax and its capacity to relapse have been suggested to make it a harder(More)
Arboviruses cycle through both vertebrates and invertebrates, which requires them to adapt to disparate hosts while maintaining genetic integrity during genome replication. To study the genetic mechanisms and determinants of these processes, we use chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging human pathogen transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. We previously(More)
Most cases of juvenile-onset diabetes (JOD) are diagnosed as type 1 diabetes (T1D), for which genetic studies conducted in outbred Caucasian populations support the concept of multifactorial inheritance. However, this view may be partly challenged in particular population settings. In view of the suggestive evidence for a high prevalence of Wolfram syndrome(More)
Canine parvovirus (CPV), a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV(More)
MOTIVATION The study of RNA virus populations is a challenging task. Each population of RNA virus is composed of a collection of different, yet related genomes often referred to as mutant spectra or quasispecies. Virologists using deep sequencing technologies face major obstacles when studying virus population dynamics, both experimentally and in natural(More)