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[1] Investigations into mechanisms driving surface tectonics commonly search for mantle sources, but few observations constrain flow in the upper mantle and transition zone. Here variations in the upper mantle discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km below the western United States are revealed through mapping depths of compressional-to-shear wave conversions(More)
Seismic data provide images of crust-mantle interactions during ongoing removal of the dense batholithic root beneath the southern Sierra Nevada mountains in California. The removal appears to have initiated between 10 and 3 Myr ago with a Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability, but with a pronounced asymmetric flow into a mantle downwelling (drip) beneath the(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII) is a structurally complex pectic sub-domain composed of more than 12 different sugars and 20 different linkages distributed in five side chains along a homogalacturonan backbone. Although RGII has long been described as highly conserved over plant evolution, recent studies have revealed variations in the(More)
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