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The aim of this study was to identify the strengths and weaknesses of five DNA fingerprint methods for epidemiological typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We investigated the usefulness of (i) ribotyping, (ii) BOX fingerprinting with the BOX repetitive sequence of S. pneumoniae as a DNA probe, (iii) PCR fingerprinting with a primer homologous to the(More)
Spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) is widely used for differentiation of bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. However, the absence of any standardised method for concise description of spoligotypes makes it difficult to compare the results from different laboratories. This paper describes unambiguous, interconvertible systems for(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with identical IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns are considered to originate from the same ancestral strain and thus to reflect ongoing transmission. In this study, we investigated 1,277 IS6110 RFLP patterns for the presence of multiple low-intensity bands (LIBs), which may indicate(More)
Molecular surveillance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was implemented in Europe as case reporting in 2005. For all new MDR TB cases detected from January 2003 through June 2007, countries reported case-based epidemiologic data and DNA fingerprint patterns of MDR TB strains when available. International clusters were detected and analyzed. From(More)
The genetic heterogeneity among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from 501 patients in Ethiopia, Tunisia, and the Netherlands was compared by analysis of DNA polymorphism driven by insertion element IS6110. The percentage of isolates displaying two or more identical patterns differed greatly in the three countries: It was highest among Tunisian isolates(More)
A standard procedure for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments of Acinetobacter baumannii was set up and validated for its interlaboratory reproducibility and its potential for use in the construction of an Internet-based database for international monitoring of epidemic strains. The PFGE fingerprints of strains were(More)
The present update on the global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex spoligotypes provides both the octal and binary descriptions of the spoligotypes for M. tuberculosis complex, including Mycobacterium bovis, from >90 countries (13,008 patterns grouped into 813 shared types containing 11,708 isolates and 1,300 orphan patterns). A number of(More)
We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11708 patterns from as many clinical isolates(More)
The importance of foodborne viral infections is increasingly recognized. Food handlers can transmit infection during preparation or serving; fruit and vegetables may be contaminated by fecally contaminated water used for growing or washing. And the globalization of the food industry mean that a contaminated food item may not be limited to national(More)
SETTING The small urban country of Singapore. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationships between Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes and drug-resistant phenotypes and to analyse the transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). DESIGN A 29-month population-based study comparing drug-resistant and drug-susceptible M. tuberculosis isolates. (More)