Hernando Knobel

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OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of the simplified medication adherence questionnaire (SMAQ) in identifying non-adherent patients. DESIGN Prospective observational study of adherence. The six-item SMAQ was developed. The following aspects were evaluated: (i) criterion validity, comparison with electronic adherence monitoring; (ii) construct validity,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence in HIV-infected patients of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, i.e., three or more of the following components: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this cross-sectional(More)
Recognition of -24/-12-type promoters by RNA polymerase requires a special sigma factor, sigma 54 (RpoN NtrA GlnF). In the nitrogen-fixing soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, two functional, highly conserved rpoN genes (rpoN1 and rpoN2) were identified and sequenced. The two predicted B. japonicum RpoN protein sequences were 87% identical, and both(More)
OBJECTIVES To analyze the characteristics of infection, adequacy of empirical treatment and outcome of patients with community-onset healthcare-associated (HCA) urinary tract infections (UTI) and compare them with hospital (HA) and community-acquired (CA) UTI. METHODS Prospective observational cohort study performed at a university 600-bed hospital(More)
BACKGROUND Data regarding the most efficacious and least toxic schedules for the use of colistin are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the potential risk factors of colistin-associated nephrotoxicity including colistin plasma levels. METHODS A prospective observational cohort study was conducted for over one year in patients(More)
BACKGROUND Data comparing abacavir/lamivudine versus tenofovir/emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive patients are controversial. We compared 48-week efficacy and safety of these combinations as substitutes of nucleosides in patients with virological suppression. METHODS We randomly assigned 333 HIV-1-infected patients on lamivudine-containing triple(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence on survival in HIV-infected patients. DESIGN Cohort study at a single hospital in Barcelona, Spain. METHODS Data on HIV-infected patients older than 18 years of age who began ART during the period 1990 to 1999 were analyzed. Patients were considered nonadherent if the total dose(More)
BACKGROUND We assessed the strategy of substituting nevirapine, efavirenz, or abacavir for a protease inhibitor in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in whom virologic suppression had been achieved. METHODS We randomly assigned 460 adults who were taking two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and at least one(More)
BACKGROUND Switching to raltegravir in selected patients treated with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors may result in similar efficacy and lower plasma lipids. METHODS SPIRAL is a 48-week multicentre, open-label trial in which HIV-infected adults with less than 50 copies/ml of plasma HIV RNA for at least the previous 6 months on ritonavir-boosted(More)