Hernan O Aviles

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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of New World Leishmania from different types of clinical specimens has been further streamlined for field use by simplifying sample preparation and modifying published protocols. A multiplex PCR reaction was developed that allows simultaneous detection of the Leishmania genus and identification of the L.(More)
The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural Ecuadorian children was assessed in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study. Vaccine group subjects received 2 intradermal doses of a whole, killed promastigote vaccine cocktail plus bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) adjuvant. Control subjects got 2 doses of(More)
A simplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was used for detection and typing of Leishmania parasites in clinical specimens from patients suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Using cultures as the reference standard, our PCR detection method was more sensitive (92%) than classical diagnostic techniques, including microscopy (42% sensitivity),(More)
It has been known for almost a decade and a half that in trypanosomes all mRNAs are trans-spliced by addition to the 5' end of the spliced leader (SL) sequence. During the same time period the conviction developed that classical cis-splicing introns are not present in the trypanosome genome and that the trypanosome gene arrangement is highly compact with(More)
Hindlimb unloading is a ground-based model that simulates some of the aspects of spaceflight conditions, including lack of load bearing on hindlimbs and a fluid shift to the head. It has been shown that treatment with active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) restores resistance to infection in mice maintained under hindlimb-unloading conditions. The present(More)
BACKGROUND Infection is a serious, costly, and common complication of surgery and constitutes the principal cause of late death in patients undergoing surgery. The objective of this study was to clarify the mechanisms by which active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) increases survival in a murine model of intramuscular infection. METHODS Food-deprived(More)
Norepinephrine is a stress hormone that enhances bacterial growth. We examined the effects of a small inoculum on the norepinephrine-induced growth of species previously reported to be unaffected by norepinephrine. The results indicated that a reduced inoculum density is essential for observing norepinephrine-induced effects. Additional studies using(More)
It has been reported that spaceflight conditions alter the immune system and resistance to infection [Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 170: 262-268, 2002; Hankins WR and Ziegelschmid JF. In: Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA, 1975, p. 43-81. (NASA Spec. Rep. SP-368)]. Ground-based models,(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that resistance to infection is decreased in Swiss Webster female mice maintained in the hindlimb-unloading model (Aviles H, Belay T, Fountain K, Vance M, and Sonnenfeld G. J Appl Physiol 95: 73-80, 2003; Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 110: 262-268, 2002). This is a model(More)
BACKGROUND Infection is the most common postoperative complication within the surgical wound and during severe trauma. In spite of the use of modern sterile techniques and prophylaxis, infection continues to be a leading cause of death in these patients. Therefore, it has become crucial to develop new alternatives to prevent the effects of trauma and other(More)