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The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural Ecuadorian children was assessed in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study. Vaccine group subjects received 2 intradermal doses of a whole, killed promastigote vaccine cocktail plus bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) adjuvant. Control subjects got 2 doses of(More)
A simplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was used for detection and typing of Leishmania parasites in clinical specimens from patients suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Using cultures as the reference standard, our PCR detection method was more sensitive (92%) than classical diagnostic techniques, including microscopy (42% sensitivity),(More)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of New World Leishmania from different types of clinical specimens has been further streamlined for field use by simplifying sample preparation and modifying published protocols. A multiplex PCR reaction was developed that allows simultaneous detection of the Leishmania genus and identification of the L.(More)
It has been known for almost a decade and a half that in trypanosomes all mRNAs are trans-spliced by addition to the 5' end of the spliced leader (SL) sequence. During the same time period the conviction developed that classical cis-splicing introns are not present in the trypanosome genome and that the trypanosome gene arrangement is highly compact with(More)
Hindlimb unloading is a ground-based model that simulates some of the aspects of spaceflight conditions, including lack of load bearing on hindlimbs and a fluid shift to the head. It has been shown that treatment with active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) restores resistance to infection in mice maintained under hindlimb-unloading conditions. The present(More)
It has been reported that spaceflight conditions alter the immune system and resistance to infection [Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 170: 262-268, 2002; Hankins WR and Ziegelschmid JF. In: Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA, 1975, p. 43-81. (NASA Spec. Rep. SP-368)]. Ground-based models,(More)
UNLABELLED The rodent model of hindlimb unloading has been successfully used to simulate some of the effects of space flight conditions. Previous studies have indicated that mice exposed to hindlimb-unloading conditions have decreased resistance to infections compared to restrained and normally housed control mice. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was(More)
BACKGROUND Cell-mediated immunity is critical for controlling infection and preventing reactivation during the chronic phase of Toxoplasma gondii infection. In people suffering from AIDS, T. gondii is one of the major opportunistic infectious agents. Mechanisms regulating rapid development of clinical signs in previously asymptomatic patients remain(More)
BACKGROUND Infection is a serious, costly, and common complication of surgery and constitutes the principal cause of late death in patients undergoing surgery. The objective of this study was to clarify the mechanisms by which active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) increases survival in a murine model of intramuscular infection. METHODS Food-deprived(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of catecholamines on in vitro growth of a range of bacterial species, including anaerobes. Bacteria tested included: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteriodes fragilis, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnie, Enterobacter Sp, and Salmonella choleraesuis. The results of the current study indicated that(More)