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A pre-requisite for sexual reproduction is successful unification of the male and female gametes; in externally-fertilising echinoderms the male gamete is brought into close proximity to the female gamete through chemotaxis, the associated signalling and flagellar beat changes being elegantly characterised in several species. In the human, sperm traverse a(More)
A modified version of the usual viscous fingering problem in a radial Hele-Shaw cell with immiscible fluids is studied by intensive numerical simulations. We consider the situation in which the fluids involved are miscible, so that the diffusing interface separating them can be driven unstable through the injection or suction of the inner fluid. The system(More)
Throughout biology, cells and organisms use flagella and cilia to propel fluid and achieve motility. The beating of these organelles, and the corresponding ability to sense, respond to and modulate this beat is central to many processes in health and disease. While the mechanics of flagellum-fluid interaction has been the subject of extensive mathematical(More)
Recent observations of flagellar counterbend in sea urchin sperm show that the mechanical induction of curvature in one part of a passive flagellum induces a compensatory countercurvature elsewhere. This apparent paradoxical effect cannot be explained using the standard elastic rod theory of Euler and Bernoulli, or even the more general Cosserat theory of(More)
A recent study by Elgeti et al. used multiparticle collision dynamics to simulate a long-standing problem: the approach of sperm to surfaces, and subsequent accumulation. The authors highlight differences in their predictions with those of the earlier Stokes flow simulations of Smith et al. attributing the differences to methodological flaws in the earlier(More)
Hyperactivation is an important phenomenon exhibited by mammalian sperm during the process of acquiring fertilization capacity. The majority of studies have focused on incubation-induced hyperactivation in non-human species, which typically differ in size, shape, and are more homogeneous than human sperm. We develop an alternative approach via(More)
The flagellar beat is extracted from human sperm digital imaging microscopy and used to determine the flow around the cell and its trajectory, via boundary element simulation. Comparison of the predicted cell trajectory with observation demonstrates that simulation can predict fine-scale sperm dynamics at the qualitative level. The flow field is also(More)
A vortex sheet formalism is used to search for equilibrium shapes in the centrifugally driven interfacial elastic fingering problem. We study the development of interfacial instabilities when a viscous fluid surrounded by another of smaller density flows in the confined environment of a rotating Hele-Shaw cell. The peculiarity of the situation is associated(More)
The zero surface tension fluid-fluid interface dynamics in a radial Hele-Shaw cell driven by both injection and rotation is studied by a conformal-mapping approach. The situation in which one of the fluids is inviscid and has negligible density is analyzed. When Coriolis force effects are ignored, exact solutions of the zero surface tension rotating(More)
The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads(More)