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Neurophysiological data support two models for the disparity selectivity of binocular simple and complex cells in primary visual cortex. These involve binocular combinations of monocular receptive fields that are shifted in retinal position (the position-shift model) or in phase (the phase-shift model) between the two eyes. This article presents a formal(More)
Double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) serves as a danger signal associated with viral infection and leads to stimulation of innate immune cells. In contrast, the immunostimulatory potential of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) is poorly understood and innate immune receptors for ssRNA are unknown. We report that guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA(More)
The heat shock protein Gp96 has been shown to induce specific immune responses. On one hand, this phenomenon is based on the specific interaction with CD91 that mediates endocytosis and results in major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted representation of the Gp96-associated peptides. On the other hand, Gp96 induces activation of professional(More)
Human heat-shock protein (HSP)70 activates innate immune cells and hence requires no additional adjuvants to render bound peptides immunogenic. Here we tested the assumption that endogenous HSP70 activates the Toll/IL-1 receptor signal pathway similar to HSP60 and pathogen-derived molecular patterns. We show that HSP70 induces interleukin-12 (IL-12) and(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns to induce innate immune responses and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferons and anti-inflammatory cytokines. TLRs activate downstream effectors through adaptors that contain Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, but the mechanisms accounting for(More)
Pathogenic microbes have evolved sophisticated molecular strategies to subvert host defenses. Here we show that virulent bacteria interfere directly with Toll-like receptor (TLR) function by secreting inhibitory homologs of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Genes encoding TIR domain containing-proteins (Tcps) were identified in Escherichia coli(More)
The scurfy mutant mouse strain suffers from a fatal lymphoproliferative disease leading to early death within 3-4 wk of age. A frame-shift mutation of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxp3 has been identified as the molecular cause of this multiorgan autoimmune disease. Foxp3 is a central control element in the development and function of regulatory T(More)
How does a neuron vary its mean output firing rate if the input changes from random to oscillatory coherent but noisy activity? What are the critical parameters of the neuronal dynamics and input statistics? To answer these questions, we investigate the coincidence-detection properties of an integrate-and-fire neuron. We derive an expression indicating how(More)
Autoantibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and nucleosomes represent a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the mechanisms involved in breaking the immunological tolerance against these poorly immunogenic nuclear components are not fully understood. Impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells with consecutive release of nuclear(More)