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Histamine, a neurotransmitter and neuroregulatory compound in diverse species, serves as the neurotransmitter of photoreceptors in insects and other arthropods by directly activating a chloride channel. By systematic expression screening of novel putative ligand-gated anion channels, we identified two cDNAs (DM-HisCl-alpha 1 and-alpha 2) coding for putative(More)
The effect of various intracellular Na concentrations (CiNa) and membrane potentials on the Na pump current (Ip) was studied in isolated, cultured sheep cardiac Purkinje cells ('cardioballs'). Ip was identified as cardiac steroid sensitive current. The dependence of Ip on CiNa was investigated at a membrane potential of -40 mV by means of whole-cell(More)
The intracellular Na activity (aiNa) of sheep Purkinje fibres bathed in solutions with and without K (Rb) is studied by means of Na sensitive microelectrodes. Perfusion with K (Pb) free media increases aiNa. Upon reapplication of K (Pb) containing solutions aiNa decreases and cell membrane hyperpolarizes transiently. After an initial delay attributed to K(More)
Following superfusion with a K free medium sheep Purkinje fibres show a strong correlation between changes in membrane potential and the intracellular Na activity in K containing solution. This correlation persists after changes in the internal Na or extracellular K activity and following substitution of Rb for external K.
Histamine is not only a crucial cytokine in the periphery but also an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the brain. It is known to act on metabotropic H1-H4 receptors, but the existence of directly histamine-gated chloride channels in mammals has been suspected for many years. However, the molecular basis of such mammalian channels remained(More)
In addition to its action as a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is thought to mediate excitatory action by activating cation currents in some cell types in invertebrates. However, to date no GABA receptor capable of mediating such action has been identified at the molecular level in insects. Using a systematic expression(More)
A systematic analysis of the Drosophila genome data reveals the existence of pHCl, a novel member of ligand-gated ion channel subunits. pHCl shows nearly identical similarity to glutamate-, glycine-, and histamine-gated ion channels, does however not belong to any of these ion channel types. We identified three different sites, where splicing generates(More)
Histamine acts as a neurotransmitter of photoreceptors in insects and other arthropods, where it directly activates a chloride channel and mediates rapid inhibitory responses. Homo- and heteromultimeric histamine-gated ion channels formed by HisCl-alpha2 or HisCl-alpha1 + alpha2 subunits from Drosophila melanogaster were characterized by two-electrode(More)
The timecourse of the membrane hyperpolarization evoked by stimulation of postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings in isolated atria from the guinea-pig heart is mainly governed by two exponentials, one describing most of the rising phase (rate constant k alpha = 2.88+/-1.135 s-1) and one which completely describes the decline of the response (k beta =(More)
1. The effect of Na and K ions on active Na transport was studied in guinea-pig auricles by means of flame photometry. 2. The Na influx into preparations rewarmed in Tyrode's solution after cooling was estimated to be about 1.05 mmole/l fibre water - min (l.f.w.-min) or c. 8 pmole/cm2 - s. Intracellular Na ions enhanced the active Na efflux over a wide(More)