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This study addresses some enduring issues of ontogenetic and evolutionary integration in the form of the hominid cranium. Our sample consists of 38 crania: 20 modern adult Homo sapiens, 14 sub-adult H. sapiens, and four archaic Homo. All specimens were CT-scanned except for two infant H. sapiens, who were imaged by MR instead. For each specimen 84 landmarks(More)
Archaic and modern human frontal bones are known to be quite distinct externally, by both conventional visual and metric evaluation. Internally this area of the skull has been considerably less well-studied. Here we present results from a comparison of interior, as well as exterior, frontal bone profiles from CT scans of five mid-Pleistocene and Neanderthal(More)
Effects of hibernation on memory were tested in European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus). The animals were trained in summer to successfully accomplish two tasks: a spatial memory task in a maze and an operant task on a feeding machine. One group hibernated normally, and the other was prevented from hibernation by maintaining ambient temperature at(More)
INTRODUCTION Over the last 100 years, Austrian facial form has changed for various reasons, including changes in growth pattern, changes in shape pattern, or a combination of these. In this study, we explored and contrasted these 2 explanations. METHODS We compared cephalograms from 54 recruits in the present-day Austrian Federal Army to those from 49 dry(More)
Patterns of received aggression and the endocrine response were related to an increase in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in an intact semifree-ranging group of Barbary macaque females in order to quantify the social stress incurred over a 20-week observation period. The novel result showed that immunoreactive cortisol and 11-oxoetiocholanolone found in(More)
Features in the endocranium, as revealed by computed tomography (CT) scans of largely complete mid-Pleistocene crania, have helped elucidate unexpected affinities in the genus Homo. Because of its extensive encrustations and deformations, it has been difficult to repeat such analyses with the Steinheim cranium. Here, we present several advances in the(More)
Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991, advanced imaging and post-processing techniques have been successfully applied to anthropological research. Among the specific techniques are spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions, which include stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull(More)
The authors describe a novel multistimulus, multiple-matching learning paradigm for pigeons, which they believe not only simulates pigeons' natural foraging behavior but also more realistically shows their visual discrimination ability. A touch screen thin film transistor panel shows a stimulus configuration consisting of a 2-dimensional array of bitmap(More)