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This study addresses some enduring issues of ontogenetic and evolutionary integration in the form of the hominid cranium. Our sample consists of 38 crania: 20 modern adult Homo sapiens, 14 sub-adult H. sapiens, and four archaic Homo. All specimens were CT-scanned except for two infant H. sapiens, who were imaged by MR instead. For each specimen 84 landmarks(More)
Archaic and modern human frontal bones are known to be quite distinct externally, by both conventional visual and metric evaluation. Internally this area of the skull has been considerably less well-studied. Here we present results from a comparison of interior, as well as exterior, frontal bone profiles from CT scans of five mid-Pleistocene and Neanderthal(More)
Effects of hibernation on memory were tested in European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus). The animals were trained in summer to successfully accomplish two tasks: a spatial memory task in a maze and an operant task on a feeding machine. One group hibernated normally, and the other was prevented from hibernation by maintaining ambient temperature at(More)
Features in the endocranium, as revealed by computed tomography (CT) scans of largely complete mid-Pleistocene crania, have helped elucidate unexpected affinities in the genus Homo. Because of its extensive encrustations and deformations, it has been difficult to repeat such analyses with the Steinheim cranium. Here, we present several advances in the(More)
The authors describe a novel multistimulus, multiple-matching learning paradigm for pigeons, which they believe not only simulates pigeons' natural foraging behavior but also more realistically shows their visual discrimination ability. A touch screen thin film transistor panel shows a stimulus configuration consisting of a 2-dimensional array of bitmap(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate secular trends by means of orthodontic measurements on lateral cephalograms. We use roentgenograms from three populations: 22 Bronze Age skulls from a cemetery near Hainburg/Austria, 140 soldiers who served in the Hapsburg Imperial Army in the late 19th century, and 154 contemporary recruits of the Austrian Federal(More)
The aim of the present investigation was to study the variation in interdental forces between mandibular canines and lateral incisors of 19 volunteers (9 males and 10 females) aged 20-26 years for four configurations (mandible open/closed and left/right side). These forces were derived by pulling a stainless steel matrix strip between these teeth, six times(More)
Of all the paranasal sinuses, frontal sinus (FS) morphology, volumes, outlines, and cross-sectional areas vary most and so their statistical noise presents particular challenges. To assess and control this statistical noise requires a suite of mathematical techniques that: model their volume and cross-sectional area ontogeny, determine the uniqueness and(More)