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This study addresses some enduring issues of ontogenetic and evolutionary integration in the form of the hominid cranium. Our sample consists of 38 crania: 20 modern adult Homo sapiens, 14 sub-adult H. sapiens, and four archaic Homo. All specimens were CT-scanned except for two infant H. sapiens, who were imaged by MR instead. For each specimen 84 landmarks(More)
Archaic and modern human frontal bones are known to be quite distinct externally, by both conventional visual and metric evaluation. Internally this area of the skull has been considerably less well-studied. Here we present results from a comparison of interior, as well as exterior, frontal bone profiles from CT scans of five mid-Pleistocene and Neanderthal(More)
Effects of hibernation on memory were tested in European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus). The animals were trained in summer to successfully accomplish two tasks: a spatial memory task in a maze and an operant task on a feeding machine. One group hibernated normally, and the other was prevented from hibernation by maintaining ambient temperature at(More)
INTRODUCTION Over the last 100 years, Austrian facial form has changed for various reasons, including changes in growth pattern, changes in shape pattern, or a combination of these. In this study, we explored and contrasted these 2 explanations. METHODS We compared cephalograms from 54 recruits in the present-day Austrian Federal Army to those from 49 dry(More)
Patterns of received aggression and the endocrine response were related to an increase in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in an intact semifree-ranging group of Barbary macaque females in order to quantify the social stress incurred over a 20-week observation period. The novel result showed that immunoreactive cortisol and 11-oxoetiocholanolone found in(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate secular trends by means of orthodontic measurements on lateral cephalograms. We use roentgenograms from three populations: 22 Bronze Age skulls from a cemetery near Hainburg/Austria, 140 soldiers who served in the Hapsburg Imperial Army in the late 19th century, and 154 contemporary recruits of the Austrian Federal(More)
Secular trends in the facial skull over three Central European samples spanning more than 13 centuries were examined. Data were 43 conventional cephalometric landmark points for samples dating from 680 to 830 AD (29 male Avars), from the mid-19th century (49 adult Hapsburg Monarchy males), and from the 20th century (54 living Austrian young adult males).(More)
Seropositivity among pregnant woman in Austria has decreased from 48% to 50% at the end of the 1970s to 35% in recent years. Despite this decrease, knowledge of possible sources and risk factors for Toxoplasma infection remains important. We reviewed seroepidemiological studies that were undertaken to assess the roles of undercooked meat and oocysts in cat(More)