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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Oxidative stress [i.e. increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)] has been suggested as a pathomechanism of different diseases, although the disease-relevant sources of ROS remain to be identified. One of these sources may be NADPH oxidases. However, due to increasing concerns about the specificity of the compounds commonly(More)
The disulfide reducing enzymes glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase are highly conserved among bacteria, fungi, worms, and mammals. These proteins maintain intracellular redox homeostasis to protect the organism from oxidative damage. Here we demonstrate the absence of glutathione reductase in Drosophila melanogaster, identify a new type of(More)
The nucleotide sequences of the large open reading frame (ORF) from segment A of three European strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) have been determined using cDNA clones. This ORF of 3036 nucleotides encodes the virion proteins as a polyprotein in the following order: VP2, VP4, VP3. The nucleotide sequences determined have been compared to(More)
Budgerigar fledgling disease virus 1 (BFDV-1) is the first avian polyomavirus to be identified, and it possesses uncommon structural and biological properties. Here we present an analysis of the processed viral RNAs in infected chicken embryo fibroblast cells. Two early and 18 late BFDV-1 mRNAs were defined according to their 5' ends and internal splice(More)
Avian polyomavirus (APV) causes an acute fatal disease in a variety of avian species. DNA laddering indicating apoptosis was demonstrated in APV-infected chicken embryo (CE) cells. DNA laddering, however, was not observed in Vero cells infected with mammalian polyomavirus simian virus 40. Expression of APV agnoprotein 1a and agnoprotein 1b induced apoptosis(More)
Cell lines from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been established as a tool for the study of the mosquito innate immune system in vitro. Here, we describe the first continuous insect cell line that produces prophenoloxidase (PPO). This cell line (4a-3B) expresses constitutively six PPO genes, three of which are novel (PPO4, PPO5, and PPO6). The PPO(More)
The transition from quiescence to proliferation is a key regulatory step that can be induced by serum stimulation in cultured fibroblasts. The transcription factor Myc is directly induced by serum mitogens and drives a secondary gene expression program that remains largely unknown. Using mRNA profiling, we identify close to 300 Myc-dependent serum response(More)
To study possible extrahepatic sites for the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV), we examined fresh and cultured peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML), as well as different subpopulations of PBML of HCV-infected patients, for the presence of viral genomic and antigenomic RNA. Sense and antisense oligonucleotide primers derived from HCV sequences(More)
Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex, adds hexameric repeats called telomeres to the growing ends of chromosomal DNA. The enzyme telomerase activity is present in a vast majority of tumors but is repressed in most normal tissues. Recently, two groups have reported the molecular cloning of the putative catalytic subunit (hEST2/hTRT) of the telomerase(More)
Pregnancy is characterized by increased erythropoiesis within maternal and fetal compartments. The placenta has been shown to produce factors that stimulate erythropoiesis but convincing evidence for placental production of erythropoietin (EPO) is still lacking. Prolactin-like protein E (PLP-E) was recently found to stimulate expression of the adult beta(More)