Hermann Georg Holzhütter

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There is now convincing evidence that the proteasome contributes to the generation of most of the peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Here we present a model-based kinetic analysis of fragment patterns generated by the 20S proteasome from 20 to 40 residues long oligomeric substrates. The model consists of ordinary(More)
Hitherto the mechanisms controlling the selective cleavage of peptide bonds by the 20 S proteasome have been poorly understood. The observation that peptide bond cleavage may eventually occur at the carboxyl site of either amino acid residue rules out a simple control of cleavage preferences by the P1 residue alone. Here, we follow the rationale that the(More)
Our knowledge of proteins has greatly improved in recent years, driven by new technologies in the fields of molecular biology and proteome research. It has become clear that from a single gene not only one single gene product but many different ones - termed protein species - are generated, all of which may be associated with different functions.(More)
INTRODUCTION In proteomics a paradox situation developed in the last years. At one side it is basic knowledge that proteins are post-translationally modified and occur in different isoforms. At the other side the protein expression concept disclaims post-translational modifications by connecting protein names directly with function. DISCUSSION Optimal(More)
As a follow-up to a prevalidation study on in vitro tests for replacing the in vivo rabbit test for skin corrosivity, an international validation study was conducted during 1996 and 1997 under the auspices of ECVAM. The main objectives of the study were to: (a) identify tests capable of discriminating corrosives from non-corrosives for selected types of(More)
In 1996 and 1997, ECVAM supported a formal validation study on in vitro methods for predicting skin corrosivity. Two of the in vitro tests included in the study employed human skin models, the Skin2™ ZK1350 and EPISKIN™ models. In the ECVAM validation study, BASF, Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) and ZEBET tested the Skin2 human skin model, production of(More)
The activation kinetics of constitutive and IFNgamma-stimulated 20S proteasomes obtained with homomeric (recPA28alpha, recPA28beta) and heteromeric (recPA28alphabeta) forms of recombinant 11S regulator PA28 was analysed by means of kinetic modelling. The activation curves obtained with increasing concentrations of the individual PA28 subunits(More)
PI31 is a previously described inhibitor of 20S proteasomes. Using recombinant PI31 we have analyzed its effect on proteasomal hydrolyzing activity of short fluorogenic substrates and of a synthetic 40-mer polypeptide. In addition, we investigated its influence on the activation of 20S proteasome by the proteasome activator PA28. PI31 inhibits polypeptide(More)
There are numerous examples showing that the metabolism of cells can be severely impaired if the activity of only one of the participating enzymes undergoes large-scale alterations, resulting, for example, from spontaneous mutations (inherited or acquired enzymopathies), the administration of toxic drugs or self-inactivation of enzymes during cell aging.(More)