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This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically(More)
We are able to make reliable predictions of the efficiency with which peptides of arbitrary lengths will be transported by TAP. The pressure exerted by TAP on Ag presentation thus can be assessed by checking to what extent MHC class I (MHC-I)-presented epitopes can be discriminated from random peptides on the basis of predicted TAP transport efficiencies(More)
A computational approach is used to analyse temporal gene expression in the context of metabolic regulation. It is based on the assumption that cells developed optimal adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. Time-dependent enzyme profiles are calculated which optimize the function of a metabolic pathway under the constraint of limited(More)
PI31 is a previously described inhibitor of 20S proteasomes. Using recombinant PI31 we have analyzed its effect on proteasomal hydrolyzing activity of short fluorogenic substrates and of a synthetic 40-mer polypeptide. In addition, we investigated its influence on the activation of 20S proteasome by the proteasome activator PA28. PI31 inhibits polypeptide(More)
Cellular functions are ultimately linked to metabolic fluxes brought about by thousands of chemical reactions and transport processes. The synthesis of the underlying enzymes and membrane transporters causes the cell a certain 'effort' of energy and external resources. Considering that those cells should have had a selection advantage during natural(More)
Proteasomes are multicatalytic cellular protease complexes that degrade intracellular proteins into smaller peptides. Proteasomal in vitro digests have revealed that the various peptide bonds of a given substrate are cleaved in a highly selective manner. Regarding the key role of proteasomes as the main supplier of antigenic peptides for MHC class(More)
There are numerous examples showing that the metabolism of cells can be severely impaired if the activity of only one of the participating enzymes undergoes large-scale alterations, resulting, for example, from spontaneous mutations (inherited or acquired enzymopathies), the administration of toxic drugs or self-inactivation of enzymes during cell aging.(More)
The activation kinetics of constitutive and IFNgamma-stimulated 20S proteasomes obtained with homomeric (recPA28alpha, recPA28beta) and heteromeric (recPA28alphabeta) forms of recombinant 11S regulator PA28 was analysed by means of kinetic modelling. The activation curves obtained with increasing concentrations of the individual PA28 subunits(More)
BACKGROUND Flux-balance analysis based on linear optimization is widely used to compute metabolic fluxes in large metabolic networks and gains increasingly importance in network curation and structural analysis. Thus, a computational tool flexible enough to realize a wide variety of FBA algorithms and able to handle batch series of flux-balance(More)
There is now convincing evidence that the proteasome contributes to the generation of most of the peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Here we present a model-based kinetic analysis of fragment patterns generated by the 20S proteasome from 20 to 40 residues long oligomeric substrates. The model consists of ordinary(More)