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Functional activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors requires both glutamate binding and the binding of an endogenous coagonist that has been presumed to be glycine, although D-serine is a more potent agonist. Localizations of D-serine and it biosynthetic enzyme serine racemase approximate the distribution of NMDA receptors more closely than(More)
High levels of D-serine occur in mammalian brain, where it appears to be an endogenous ligand of the glycine site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. In glial cultures of rat cerebral cortex, D-serine is enriched in type II astrocytes and is released upon stimulation with agonists of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. The high levels of D-serine(More)
D-serine is thought to be a glia-derived transmitter that activates N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the brain. Here, we investigate the pathways for D-serine release using primary cultures, brain slices, and in vivo microdialysis. In contrast with the notion that D-serine is exclusively released from astrocytes, we found that D-serine is released(More)
High levels of D-aspartate occur in the brain and endocrine glands, such as pineal, adrenal and pituitary. In the brain, D-aspartate levels are highest in embryonic and early postnatal stages. Notably high levels occur in the early postnatal cortical plate and subventricular zone of the cerebral cortical cultures, implying a role in development. In(More)
Although D amino acids are prominent in bacteria, they generally are thought not to occur in mammals. Recently, high levels of D-serine have been found in mammalian brain where it activates glutamate/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by interacting with the "glycine site" of the receptor. Because amino acid racemases are thought to be restricted to bacteria(More)
D-serine is a coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that occurs at high levels in the brain. Biosynthesis of D-serine is carried out by serine racemase, which converts L- to D-serine. D-serine has been demonstrated to occur in glial cells, leading to the proposal that astrocytes are the only source of D-serine. We now report significant amounts(More)
Clinical trials demonstrated that D-serine administration improves schizophrenia symptoms, raising the possibility that altered levels of endogenous D-serine may contribute to the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor hypofunction thought to play a role in the disease. We hypothesized that cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) D-serine levels are decreased in the patients due(More)
Glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles is driven by an electrochemical proton gradient formed across the membrane by a vacuolar H+-ATPase. Chloride has a biphasic effect on glutamate transport, which it activates at low concentrations (2-8 mM) and inhibits at high concentrations (>20 mM). Stimulation with 4 mM chloride was due to an increase in the Vmax of(More)
High levels of d-serine occur in the brain, challenging the notion that d-amino acids would not be present or play a role in mammals. d-serine levels in the brain are even higher than many l-amino acids, such as asparagine, valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan, among others. d-serine is synthesized by a serine racemase (SR) enzyme, which directly converts l-(More)
Mammalian brain contains high levels of d-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of N-methyl D-aspartate type of glutamate receptors. D-Serine is synthesized by serine racemase, a brain enriched enzyme converting L- to D-serine. Degradation of D-serine is achieved by D-amino acid oxidase, but this enzyme is not present in forebrain areas that are highly enriched(More)