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Cellular senescence acts as a potent mechanism of tumor suppression; however, its functional contribution to noncancer pathologies has not been examined. Here we show that senescent cells accumulate in murine livers treated to produce fibrosis, a precursor pathology to cirrhosis. The senescent cells are derived primarily from activated hepatic stellate(More)
Plasmodium sporozoite invasion of liver cells has been an extremely elusive event to study. In the prevailing model, sporozoites enter the liver by passing through Kupffer cells, but this model was based solely on incidental observations in fixed specimens and on biochemical and physiological data. To obtain direct information on the dynamics of sporozoite(More)
Small, extraportal, hepatic parenchymal cells, positive for biliary-type cytokeratins, may represent hepatic stem cells, canals of Hering (CoH), and/or ductal plate remnants. We evaluated these cells 3 dimensionally in normal human liver and massive necrosis. Tissues from normal human livers and from 1 liver with acetaminophen-induced massive necrosis were(More)
Translational regulation is critical in cancer development and progression. Translation sustains tumor growth and development of a tumor vasculature, a process known as angiogenesis, which is activated by hypoxia. Here we first demonstrate that a majority of large advanced breast cancers overexpress translation regulatory protein 4E-BP1 and initiation(More)
Hypertrophic scars occur following cutaneous wounding and result in severe functional and esthetic defects. The pathophysiology of this process remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that mechanical stress applied to a healing wound is sufficient to produce hypertrophic scars in mice. The resulting scars are histopathologically identical(More)
Classification of high grade astrocytomas of children into genetic subtypes similar to the adult remains to be defined. Here we report an extensive characterization of 29 high grade pediatric astrocytomas, 7 WHO grade III and 22 WHO grade IV, for genetic alterations frequently observed in high grade adult astrocytomas occurring in either the p53/MDM2/p14ARF(More)
The genetic hallmark of hemangioblastomas and clear cell-renal cell carcinomas (CC-RCCs) is loss-of-function of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein. VHL is required for oxygen-dependent degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha). In hemangioblastomas and CC-RCCs, HIF-1alpha is constitutively overexpressed leading to(More)
BACKGROUND Sorafenib monotherapy in patients with metastatic melanoma was explored in this multi-institutional phase II study. In correlative studies the impact of sorafenib on cyclin D1 and Ki67 was assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Thirty-six patients treatment-naïve advanced melanoma patients received sorafenib 400 mg p.o. twice daily(More)
Cap43 is a protein whose RNA is induced under conditions of severe hypoxia or prolonged elevations of intracellular calcium. Additionally, Ni and Co also induce Cap43 because they produce a state of hypoxia in cells. Cap43 protein is expressed at low levels in normal tissues; however, in a variety of cancers, including lung, brain, melanoma, liver,(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS In massive hepatic necrosis, hepatic stem cells constitute a canal of Hering derived, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) positive 'ductular reaction' (DR). Whether DRs in cirrhosis are activated stem cells (so called 'buds') or biliary metaplasia of cholestatic, injured hepatocytes is still debated. We investigate derivation of intraseptal hepatocytes(More)