Herman H. Shugart

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The successful use of natural abundances of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes in the study of ecosystem dynamics suggests that isotopic measurements could yield new insights into the role of fungi in nitrogen and carbon cycling. Sporocarps of mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi, vegetation, and soils were collected in young, deciduous-dominated sites and(More)
For about three decades, there have been many predictions of the potential ecological response in boreal regions to the currently warmer conditions. In essence, a widespread, naturally occurring experiment has been conducted over time. In this paper, we describe previously modeled predictions of ecological change in boreal Alaska, Canada and Russia, and(More)
We present the first tree-ring reconstruction of rainfall in tropical Africa using a 200-year regional chronology based on samples of Pterocarpus angolensis from Zimbabwe. The regional chronology is significantly correlated with summer rainfall (November–February) from 1901 to 1948, and the derived reconstruction explains 46% of the instrumental rainfall(More)
Greenhouse gases released by human activities are the dominant forcing in anomalously high latter twentieth century temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere, overriding a millennial-scale cooling trend due to astronomical forcing (Briffa et al., 1995; Mann et al., 1998). At northern high latitudes this results in winter and spring warming accompanied(More)
Understanding patterns of biodiversity distribution is essential to conservation strategies, but severe data constraints make surrogate measures necessary. For this reason, many studies have tested the performance of terrestrial vertebrates as surrogates for overall species diversity, but these tests have typically been limited to a single taxon or region.(More)
In many cases model integration treats models as software components only, ignoring the fluid relationship between models and reality, the evolving nature of models and their constant modification and recalibration. As a result, with integrated models we find increased complexity, where changes that used to impact only relatively contained models of(More)
P.Ya. Groisman and G. Gutman (eds.), Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences, Springer Environmental Science and Engineering, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-4569-8_6, © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013 Abstract This chapter considers the current state of Siberian terrestrial ecosystems, their spatial distribution, and(More)
A coupled energy and water balance model is used to simulate the effects of large tree canopies on soil moisture and water stress across a series of sites spanning a regional moisture gradient in southern Africa. The model tracks evapotranspiration from five components of the land surface at each site—the tree canopy, the grass under and between tree(More)
Nitrogen cycling in forest soils has been intensively studied for many years because nitrogen is often the limiting nutrient for forest growth. Complex interactions between soil, microbes, and plants and the consequent inability to correlate δ15N changes with biologic processes have limited the use of natural abundances of nitrogen isotopes to study(More)
Aim Our main goals were to develop a map of the life zones for the conterminous United States, based on the Holdridge Life Zone system, as a tool for ecosystem mapping, and to compare the map of Holdridge life zones with other global vegetation classification and mapping efforts. Location The area of interest is the forty-eight contiguous states of the(More)