Herman Friedman

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Studies on the effects of marijuana smoking have evolved into the discovery and description of the endocannabinoid system. To date, this system is composed of two receptors, CB1 and CB2, and endogenous ligands including anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, and others. CB1 receptors and ligands are found in the brain as well as immune and other peripheral(More)
The effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL 1 beta) on spatial learning was examined. In one experiment, C57BL/6 mice were given daily injections (100 ng/mouse) of recombinant murine IL1 beta prior to training on the Morris water maze. In another experiment, mice were infected with a sublethal dose of a gram-negative bacterium (Legionella pneumophila; Lp). Mice(More)
Resistance to infection with Legionella pneumophila is primarily dependent upon cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity. Recent evidence suggests that activation of cell-mediated immunity depends on Th1 cells and activation of humoral immunity depends on Th2 cells. In this report, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive(More)
The use of recreational drugs of abuse has generated serious health concerns. There is a long-recognized relationship between addictive drugs and increased levels of infections. Studies of the mechanisms of actions of these drugs became more urgent with the advent of AIDS and its correlation with abused substances. The nature and mechanisms of(More)
Many advances have been made in the last few years concerning our understanding of the receptors and ligands composing the cannabinoid system. Likewise, the science surrounding cytokine biology has advanced enabling us to measure these proteins more precisely as well as understand and interpret the meaning of changes in their levels. Scientists wishing to(More)
Although nicotine is thought to be one of the major immunomodulatory components of cigarette smoking, how nicotine alters the host defense of the lung and, in particular, immune responses of alveolar macrophages, which are critical effector cells in the lung defense to infection, is poorly understood. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the(More)
Cannabinoid CB(2) receptor is reported to be expressed in varying amounts in different human immune subpopulations. To examine the expression pattern of CB(2) in the mouse, immune cell subpopulations were purified and studied by semiquantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). CB(2) mRNA was most abundant in splenic B cells,(More)
The use of drugs of abuse, both recreationally and medicinally, may be related to serious public health concerns. There is a relationship between addictive drugs of abuse such as alcohol and nicotine in cigarette smoke, as well as illegal drugs such as opiates, cocaine and marijuana, and increased susceptibility to infections. The nature and mechanisms of(More)
Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium which readily grows in cultures of guinea pig and human mononuclear phagocytes. In this report, we demonstrate that the Legionella sp. also grows in thioglycolate-elicited macrophages obtained from A/J mice but not in cells from other mouse strains tested, such as BDF1, DBA/2, C3H/HeN, C57BL/6,(More)
Both genetic background and environmental factors, very probably viruses, appear to play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Lessons from viral experimental models suggest that many different viruses may trigger inflammatory demyelinating diseases resembling MS. Theiler's virus, a picornavirus, induces in susceptible strains of mice early(More)