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The loss of biodiversity can have significant impacts on ecosystem functioning, but the mechanisms involved lack empirical confirmation. Using soil microcosms, we show experimentally that functional dissimilarity among detritivorous species, not species number, drives community compositional effects on leaf litter mass loss and soil respiration, two key(More)
One of the most important areas in ecology is to elucidate the factors that drive succession in ecosystems and thus influence the diversity of species in natural vegetation. Significant mechanisms in this process are known to be resource limitation and the effects of aboveground vertebrate herbivores. More recently, symbiotic and pathogenic soil microbes(More)
*The impact of various agricultural practices on soil biodiversity and, in particular, on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), is still poorly understood, although AMF can provide benefit to plants and ecosystems. Here, we tested whether organic farming enhances AMF diversity and whether AMF communities from organically managed fields are more similar to(More)
In a previous study, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)-like sequences were detected in the fragmentation layer of acid Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest soils (pH 2.9-3.4) with high nitrification rates (>11.0 microg g-1 dry soil week-1), but were not detected in soils with low nitrification rates (<0.5 microg g-1 dry soil week-1). In the present study,(More)
The relation between environmental factors and the presence of ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB), and its consequences for the N transformation rates were investigated in nine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest soils. In general, the diversity in AOB appears to be strikingly low compared to other ecosystems. Nitrosospira cluster 2, as determined by(More)
The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium(More)
The collembolan Orchesella cincta possesses a well-developed coelomoduct kidney. The presence of podocytes in the wall of the sacculus and the fact that the epithelium of the nephridial tubule has the ultrastructural characteristics of resorbing cells, indicate that this is an "ultrafiltration-reabsorption" kidney. Apparently also the rectum is lined by a(More)
Spatial distribution in the two collembolan species Tomocerus minor and Orchesella cincta is greatly influenced by the distribution of the environmental factors water and food. T. minor is totally restricted in distribution to water-saturated places, where it forms spaced-out aggregations. O. cincta assembles in water-saturated places during ecdysis and(More)
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