Herbert Underwood

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A circadian clock modulates the functional organization of the Japanese quail retina. Under conditions of constant darkness, rods dominate electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave responses at night, and cones dominate them during the day, yielding a circadian rhythm in retinal sensitivity and rod-cone dominance. The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, the(More)
The pineal has been identified as a major circadian pacemaker within the circadian system of a number of lower vertebrates although other pacemaking sites have been implicated as well. The rhythmic synthesis and secretion of the pineal hormone, melatonin, is suggested as the mechanism by which the pineal controls circadian oscillators located elsewhere.(More)
The pineal organ of the lizard Anolis carolinensis acts as a transducer of photoperiodic information, since light can affect the pineal melatonin rhythm (PMR). The synthesis and secretion of melatonin may be a major mechanism whereby a circadian pacemaker within the pineal can control circadian clocks located elsewhere. An investigation into potential(More)
The effect of food deprivation on the body temperature and activity rhythms of quail was assessed in birds exposed to both light-dark (LD) cycles and to continuous darkness (DD). Quail normally exhibit a daily rhythm of body temperature in LD that will persist in DD (that is, the rhythm is circadian). In LD, 3 days' food deprivation caused the body(More)
Both light and temperature can influence the pineal's synthesis of the indoleamine melatonin. An investigation of the effects of light and temperature cycles on the pineal melatonin rhythm (PMR) showed the following: (1) Both daily light cycles and daily temperature cycles could entrain the PMR; melatonin levels peaked during the dark phase of a light-dark(More)
  • H Underwood
  • 1985
Pineal and ocular melatonin was assessed, over 24 h periods, in male lizards (Anolis carolinensis) entrained to 24 h light-dark (LD) cycles and a constant 32 degrees C, and in lizards entrained to both 24 h LD cycles and 24 h temperature cycles (32 degrees C/20 degrees C). At a constant temperature, the duration of the photoperiod has a profound effect on(More)
Phase-response curves (PRCs) for 6-h fluorescent light pulses are described for both intact (sham-pinealectomized) and pinealectomized iguanid lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis). Although strongly diurnal in habit the PRC for intact lizards is more typical of those seen in nocturnal rodents. Other "nocturnal" characteristics of this lizard include the fact(More)