The efficiency of an electrically-small antenna may be measured conveniently by placing it in a conducting Wheeler Cap. This paper presents a composite equivalent circuit that models an antenna bothâ€¦ (More)

Circuit models for the lowest-order modes radiating from within an arbitrarily-shaped envelope have been developed based on the exact circuits for spherical modes and the radar scattering from aâ€¦ (More)

The six lowest-order modes that can be excited by a small antenna can be combined to produce patterns with a variety of polarization, gain, and Q characteristics. Tables and equations are presentedâ€¦ (More)

Both the bandwidth and efficiency of antennas decrease as the physical size decreases. Bounds on the <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">${Q}$ </tex-math></inline-formula>-factor, inverselyâ€¦ (More)

The procedure for numerically deriving equivalent circuits for the six lowest-order modes of arbitrarily shaped, electrically small antennas is reviewed. Element values and the effective radius areâ€¦ (More)