Herbert L. Needleman

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Lead is a confirmed neurotoxin, but questions remain about lead-associated intellectual deficits at blood lead levels < 10 microg/dL and whether lower exposures are, for a given change in exposure, associated with greater deficits. The objective of this study was to examine the association of intelligence test scores and blood lead concentration, especially(More)
The implications of low-level lead exposure for children's intellectual and academic performance at school age are uncertain. This issue was investigated in a prospective study of middle-class and upper-middle-class children with low lifetime exposures to lead. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered at age 10 years to 148 children whose lead(More)
To measure the neuropsychologic effects of unidentified childhood exposure to lead, the performance of 58 children with high and 100 with low dentine lead levels was compared. Children with lead levels scored significantly less well on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) than those with low lead levels. This difference was also apparent(More)
In a cohort of 170 middle and upper-middle class children participating in a prospective study of child development and low-level lead exposure, higher blood lead levels at age 24 months were associated with lower scores at age 57 months on the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. The mean blood lead level at age 24 months was 6.8 micrograms/dL (SD =(More)
In a prospective cohort study of 249 children from birth to two years of age, we assessed the relation between prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. On the basis of lead levels in umbilical-cord blood, children were assigned to one of three prenatal-exposure groups: low (less than 3 micrograms per deciliter), medium (6 to 7(More)
Understanding of lead toxicity has advanced substantially over the past three decades, and focus has shifted from high-dose effects in clinically symptomatic individuals to the consequences of exposure at lower doses that cause no symptoms, particularly in children and fetuses. The availability of more sensitive analytic methods has made it possible to(More)
To determine whether the effects of low-level lead exposure persist, we reexamined 132 of 270 young adults who had initially been studied as primary school-children in 1975 through 1978. In the earlier study, neurobehavioral functioning was found to be inversely related to dentin lead levels. As compared with those we restudied, the other 138 subjects had(More)
We identified 24 modern studies of childhood exposures to lead in relation to IQ. From this population, 12 that employed multiple regression analysis with IQ as the dependent variable and lead as the main effect and that controlled for nonlead covariates were selected for a quantitative, integrated review or meta-analysis. The studies were grouped according(More)
In an effort to determine whether specific aspects of attention are impaired by lead, the performance of 79 subjects (aged 19 and 20 y) on a neuropsychologically based battery of tests of attention was examined in relation to lead levels in deciduous teeth (dentin), current blood, and tibia and patella bones measured by K-X-ray fluorescence. Dentin lead(More)