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Cefotaxime and ceftriaxone have proven to be effective in pyogenic infections of the central nervous system. Since in some bacterial central nervous system infections the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier is either minimally impaired or recovers in the course of the illness, we studied the penetration of both antibiotics in the absence of inflamed(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to evaluate and monitor disease activity in inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as multiple sclerosis. The present study aimed at correlating MRI findings with histological parameters in 6 cases of biopsy-proven inflammatory demyelination of the CNS. The earliest stages of(More)
OBJECTIVE The intravenous administration of tromethamine (INN, trometamol) lowers the intracranial pressure in patients with brain edema. One postulated mechanism of action is the increase of the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid. METHODS To study tromethamine kinetics in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, nine patients with external ventriculostomies and normal(More)
The penetration of rifampicin into CSF was studied in seven patients who had undergone external ventriculostomy for occlusive hydrocephalus without major disturbance of the blood-CSF barrier. After the first dose of rifampicin 600 mg i.v. over 3 h, blood and CSF concentrations were determined serially by HPLC. Peak CSF concentrations obtained 0-8 h (median(More)
OBJECTIVE An increased level of endothelin (ET)-1 seems to be involved in the development of augmented cerebrovascular resistance in different pathological conditions, most notably vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Therefore, interfering with the ET synthesis or ET receptor blockade may be a promising approach in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm(More)
Nine patients with external ventriculostomy and suffering from hydrocephalus, due to non-inflammatory central nervous system diseases, were given ciprofloxacin (200 mg twice daily iv). Ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum and CSF were measured by HPLC. Single-dose pharmacokinetics were determined in three patients, and 60 and 600 min post-dose levels after(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Compared with mannitol, the osmotherapeutic agent sorbitol is less prone to accumulate in the blood and the same quantity may be infused in a smaller volume. Because of these advantageous characteristics, we studied the pharmacokinetics of sorbitol in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. METHODS Six patients (five women and one man; age(More)
The 36-megadalton Haemophilus influenzae R plasmid pHK539 was found to specify resistance to tetracycline (Tc) and ampicillin (Ap). It was shown by molecular hybridization studies and by electron microscopy that the plasmid pHK539 contained the tetracycline translocation deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)segment (TnTc) as well as the ampicillin translocation(More)
A 29-year-old male patient suffering from communicating hydrocephalus was treated by placement of a ventriculoatrial shunt (Pudenz-Heyer bur-hole valve). A disturbingly loud, pulse-synchronous, bruit in the ear on getting up from lying down remained unrecognized for 3 years as possibly generated by air bubbles in the valve. Clinical and technical(More)