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If two separated observers are supplied with entanglement, in the form of n pairs of particles in identical partly-entangled pure states, one member of each pair being given to each observer; they can, by local actions of each observer, concentrate this entangle-ment into a smaller number of maximally-entangled pairs of particles, for example(More)
iii To m y family iv Acknowledgments I h a ve been extraordinarily fortunate to have Carlton Caves as advisor for my graduate work. I have learned much a b o u t p h ysics, life, and life as a physicist from him, and I am deeply grateful for his advice and friendship. His steady vision of the role of theory in physics, his perseverance in pursuing this(More)
This paper documents the discovery of a new, better-than-classical quantum algorithm for the depth-two AND/OR tree problem. We describe the genetic programming system that was constructed specifically for this work, the quantum computer simulator that is used to evaluate the fitness of evolving quantum algorithms, and the newly discovered algorithm.
Quantum computers are computational devices that use the dynamics of atomic-scale objects to store and manipulate information. Only a few, small-scale quantum computers have been built to date, but quantum computers can in principle outperform all possible classical computers in significant ways. Quantum computation is therefore a subject of considerable(More)
Niggli reduction can be viewed as a series of operations in a six-dimensional space derived from the metric tensor. An implicit embedding of the space of Niggli-reduced cells in a higher-dimensional space to facilitate calculation of distances between cells is described. This distance metric is used to create a program, BGAOL, for Bravais lattice(More)
A Monte Carlo technique was used to simulate some of the important physical processes involved in the coincidence detection of gamma rays by a positron emission tomograph. The major effect considered here is the detection of Compton scattered gamma rays as coincidence counts. The Compton scattering of gamma rays in a H2O filled phantom was simulated using(More)
Resonance Raman data have been used to elucidate the mechanisms of the absorption spectral shifts occurring for astaxanthin upon binding to the carotenoproteins, ovoverdin and alpha-,beta- and gamma-crustacyanins, from the lobster Homarus americanus. Although distinguishable on the basis of small differences in their resonance Raman spectra the binding(More)