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Food intake is regulated by the hypothalamus, including the melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems in the arcuate nucleus. The NPY Y2 receptor (Y2R), a putative inhibitory presynaptic receptor, is highly expressed on NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which is accessible to peripheral hormones. Peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), a Y2R agonist, is(More)
Department of Medicine (M.C.M.), University of Essen, Essen, Germany; Department of Pharmacy (A.B-S.), ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; Department of Pharmacology (H.C.), UMDS, Guy’s and St. Thomas Medical School, London, United Kingdom; Dr. Karl Thomae GmbH (H.N.D.), Biberach, Germany; Garvan Institute of Medical Research (H.H.), St. Vincent Hospital,(More)
Molecular cloning techniques have recently led to the identification of a growing number of neuropeptide Y-receptor subtypes, suggesting possible subtype-specific involvement in different physiological processes. Here we report the first study which determines and compares the mRNA expression of all four cloned functional Y-receptor subtypes (Y1, Y2, Y4 and(More)
Psychological conditions, including stress, compromise immune defenses. Although this concept is not novel, the molecular mechanism behind it remains unclear. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nervous system is a major regulator of numerous physiological functions, including stress. Postganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating lymphoid organs release(More)
Stress and anxiety are mainly regulated by amygdala and hypothalamic circuitries involving several neurotransmitter systems and providing physiological responses to peripheral organs via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other pathways. The role of endogenous opioid peptides in this process is largely unknown. Here we show for the first time that(More)
The relationship between stress and obesity remains elusive. In response to stress, some people lose weight, whereas others gain. Here we report that stress exaggerates diet-induced obesity through a peripheral mechanism in the abdominal white adipose tissue that is mediated by neuropeptide Y (NPY). Stressors such as exposure to cold or aggression lead to(More)
Anorexia and weight loss are part of the wasting syndrome of late-stage cancer, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer, and are thought to be cytokine mediated. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) is produced by many cancers. Examination of sera from individuals with advanced prostate cancer showed a direct relationship between MIC-1(More)
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance and reproduction, and chronically elevated NPY levels in the hypothalamus are associated with obesity and reduced reproductive function. However, it is not known which one of the five cloned Y receptors mediates these effects. Here we show that crossing the Y4 receptor(More)
Anxiety is integrated in the amygdaloid nuclei and involves the interplay of the amygdala and various other areas of the brain. Neuropeptides play a critical role in regulating this process. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 aa peptide, is highly expressed in the amygdala. It exerts potent anxiolytic effects through cognate postsynaptic Y1 receptors, but augments(More)
New neurones are produced in the adult hippocampus throughout life and are necessary for certain types of hippocampal learning. Little, however, is known about the control of hippocampal neurogenesis. We used primary hippocampal cultures from early post-natal rats and neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor knockout mice as well as selective neuropeptide Y receptor(More)