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In spontaneous speaking, the is normally pronounced as thuh, with the reduced vowel schwa (rhyming with the first syllable of about). But it is sometimes pronounced as thiy, with a nonreduced vowel (rhyming with see). In a large corpus of spontaneous English conversation, speakers were found to use thiy to signal an immediate suspension of speech to deal(More)
Two experiments are reported in which Ss were required to determine whether a random, angular form, presented at any of a number of picture-plane orienta-tions, was a " standard " or " reflected " version. Average time required to make this determination increased linearly with the angular departure of the form from a previously learned orientation. The(More)
The problems that participants in conversation have, it is argued, are really joint problems and have to be managed jointly. The participants have three types of strategies for managing them. (1) They try to prevent foreseeable but avoidable problems. (2) They warn partners of foreseeable but unavoidable problems. And (3) they repair problems that have(More)
In conversation, two people inevitably know different amounts about the topic of discussion, yet to make their references understood, they need to draw on knowledge and beliefs that they share. An expert and a novice talking with each other, therefore, must assess each other's expertise and accommodate to their differences. They do this in part, it is(More)
Most disfluencies, I argue, are not truly mistakes. Rather, speakers design them as signals for coordinating with their addressees on certain of their speech actions. At the lowest level, speakers try to synchronize their vocalizations with their addressees' attention. At the next level up, they try to synchronize, or pace, the presentation of each(More)
If ordinary people are to work with humanoid robots, they will need to communicate with them. But how will they do that? For many in the field, the goal is to design robots that people can talk to just as they talk to actual people. But a close look at actual communication suggests that this goal isn't realist. It may even be untenable in principle. An(More)