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GROUNDING It takes two people working together to play a duet, shake hands, play chess, waltz, teach, or make love. To succeed, the two of them have to coordinate both the content and process of what they are doing. Alan and Barbara, on the piano, must come to play the same Mozart duet. This is coordination of content. They must also synchronize their(More)
For people to contribute to discourse, they must do more than utter the right sentence at the right time. The basic requirement is that they odd to their common ground in on orderly way. To do this, we argue, they try to establish for each utterance the mutual belief that the addressees hove understood what the speaker meant well enough for current(More)
In conversation, speakers and addressees work together in the making of a definite reference. In the model we propose, the speaker initiates the process by presenting or inviting a noun phrase. Before going on to the next contribution , the participants, if necessary, repair, expand on, or replace the noun phrase in an iterative process until they reach a(More)
When people in conversation refer repeatedly to the same object, they come to use the same terms. This phenomenon, called lexical entrainment, has several possible explanations. Ahistorical accounts appeal only to the informativeness and availability of terms and to the current salience of the object's features. Historical accounts appeal in addition to the(More)
Speakers monitor their own speech and, when they discover problems, make repairs. In the proposal examined here, speakers also monitor addressees for understanding and, when necessary, alter their utterances in progress. Addressees cooperate by displaying and signaling their understanding in progress. Pairs of participants were videotaped as a director(More)
Speakers often repeat the first word of major constituents, as in, "I uh I wouldn't be surprised at that." Repeats like this divide into four stages: an initial commitment to the constituent (with "I"); the suspension of speech; a hiatus in speaking (filled with "uh"); and a restart of the constituent ("I wouldn't."). An analysis of all repeated articles(More)
In spontaneous speaking, the is normally pronounced as thuh, with the reduced vowel schwa (rhyming with the first syllable of about). But it is sometimes pronounced as thiy, with a nonreduced vowel (rhyming with see). In a large corpus of spontaneous English conversation, speakers were found to use thiy to signal an immediate suspension of speech to deal(More)
Two experiments are reported in which Ss were required to determine whether a random, angular form, presented at any of a number of picture-plane orienta-tions, was a " standard " or " reflected " version. Average time required to make this determination increased linearly with the angular departure of the form from a previously learned orientation. The(More)
The problems that participants in conversation have, it is argued, are really joint problems and have to be managed jointly. The participants have three types of strategies for managing them. (1) They try to prevent foreseeable but avoidable problems. (2) They warn partners of foreseeable but unavoidable problems. And (3) they repair problems that have(More)
In conversation, two people inevitably know different amounts about the topic of discussion, yet to make their references understood, they need to draw on knowledge and beliefs that they share. An expert and a novice talking with each other, therefore, must assess each other's expertise and accommodate to their differences. They do this in part, it is(More)