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27 information is used. A choice then has to be made as to which is the most eecient option. Acknowledgments. We are grateful to the referees for their useful comments. We thank Robert Michael Lewis for his valuable suggestions on how best to present this material, particularly the results given in x7. Mathematical models for the predictive value of early(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, researchers have been using mass spectroscopy to study cancer. For use of proteomics spectra in a clinical setting, stringent quality-control procedures will be needed. METHODS We pooled samples of nipple aspirate fluid from healthy breasts and breasts with cancer to prepare a control sample. Aliquots of the control sample were used(More)
Biomarkers for early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are urgently needed. Patients can generate antibodies to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). We tested multiplex detection of antibodies to candidate ovarian TAAs and statistical modeling for discrimination of sera of EOC patients and controls. Binding of serum antibody of women with EOC or(More)
Introduction of tumor markers into routine clinical practice has been poorly controlled, with few criteria or guidelines as to how such markers should be used. We propose a Tumor Marker Utility Grading System (TMUGS) to evaluate the clinical utility of tumor markers and to establish an investigational agenda for evaluation of new tumor markers. A Tumor(More)
BACKGROUND Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed. METHODS Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 4 cancer sites--liver, bladder, cervical, and gastric--were critically reviewed. RESULTS Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) may be used in(More)
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical utility of serum HER2/neu in monitoring metastatic breast cancer patients undergoing trastuzumab-based therapy and to compare these results with those obtained using cancer antigen (CA) 15-3. We also sought to determine whether early changes in serum HER2/neu concentrations(More)
BACKGROUND Publications on autoantibodies to tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) have failed to show either calibration or reproducibility data. The validation of a panel of six TAAs to which autoantibodies have been described is reported here. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three separate groups of patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer were identified, along(More)
Lung cancer remains the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. To reduce the mortality associated with this disease, individuals at risk must be identified prior to the development of lung cancer, and effective prevention strategies must be developed. One such strategy is to use retinoids like N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR),(More)
BACKGROUND A 2-stage ovarian cancer screening strategy was evaluated that incorporates change of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) levels over time and age to estimate risk of ovarian cancer. Women with high-risk scores were referred for transvaginal ultrasound (TVS). METHODS A single-arm, prospective study of postmenopausal women was conducted.(More)
PURPOSE Surrogate end point biomarkers (SEBs) that can be measured in ductal carcinoma in situ or early-stage invasive cancer are needed to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of chemoprevention trials. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We conducted a prospective study to develop SEBs for tamoxifen and N-[4-hydroxyphenyl]retinamide by administering either a(More)