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Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes by conjugation is thought to play an important role in the spread of resistance. Yet virtually no information is available about the extent to which such horizontal transfers occur in natural settings. In this paper, we show that conjugal gene transfer has made a major contribution to increased antibiotic resistance(More)
According to the hygiene hypothesis, the increasing incidence of autoimmune diseases in western countries may be explained by changes in early microbial exposure, leading to altered immune maturation. We followed gut microbiome development from birth until age three in 222 infants in Northern Europe, where early-onset autoimmune diseases are common in(More)
Gut microbial dysbioses are linked to aberrant immune responses, which are often accompanied by abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines. As part of the Human Functional Genomics Project (HFGP), we investigate how differences in composition and function of gut microbial communities may contribute to inter-individual variation in cytokine responses to(More)
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