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Modern Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) provide sufficiently flexible programming models that understanding their performance can provide insight in designing tomorrow's manycore processors, whether those are GPUs or otherwise. The combination of multiple, multithreaded, SIMD cores makes studying these GPUs useful in understanding tradeoffs among memory,(More)
The electrical efficiency of computation has doubled roughly every year and a half for more than six decades, a pace of change comparable to that for computer performance and electrical efficiency in the microprocessor era. These efficiency improvements enabled the creation of laptops, smart phones, wireless sensors, and other mobile computing devices, with(More)
Graphics processors (GPU) offer the promise of more than an order of magnitude speedup over conventional processors for certain non-graphics computations. Because the GPU is often presented as a C-like abstraction (e.g., Nvidia's CUDA), little is known about the characteristics of the GPU's architecture beyond what the manufacturer has documented. This work(More)
As soft processors are increasingly used in diverse applications, there is a need to evolve their microarchitectures in a way that suits the FPGA implementation substrate. This paper compares the delay and area of a comprehensive set of processor building block circuits when implemented on custom CMOS and FPGA substrates. We then use the results of these(More)
Information technology (IT) has captured the popular imagination, in part because of the tangible benefits IT brings, but also because the underlying technological trends proceed at easily measurable, remarkably predictable, and unusually rapid rates. The number of transistors on a chip has doubled more or less every two years for decades, a trend that is(More)
Because genetic defects relating to the ubiquitin-proteasome system were reported in familial parkinsonism, we evaluated proteasomal function in autopsied brains with sporadic Parkinson's disease. We found that proteasome peptidase activities in a fraction specific to the proteasome were preserved in five brain areas (including the striatum) of Parkinson's(More)
PURPOSE This is the first report of toxicity outcomes at dose Level V (78 Gy) on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9406 for Stages T1-T2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate. METHODS AND MATERIALS A total of 225 patients were entered in this cooperative group, Phase I-II dose-escalation trial of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for localized carcinoma of(More)
Alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies and glial cytoplasmic inclusions, pathological hallmarks of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, and it is assumed to be aetiologically involved in these conditions. However, the quantitative status of brain alpha-synuclein in different Parkinsonian disorders is still unresolved and(More)