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In this paper a novel approach is described for tree visualization using nested circles. The brother nodes at the same level are represented by externally tangent circles; the tree nodes at different levels are displayed by using 2D nested circles or 3D nested cylinders. A new layout algorithm for tree structure is described. It provides a good overview for(More)
BACKGROUND In a single-center study published more than a decade ago involving patients presenting to the emergency department with severe sepsis and septic shock, mortality was markedly lower among those who were treated according to a 6-hour protocol of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT), in which intravenous fluids, vasopressors, inotropes, and blood(More)
BACKGROUND In a departure from the previous strategy of immediate defibrillation, the 2005 resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association-International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation suggested that emergency medical service (EMS) personnel could provide 2 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) before the first analysis of cardiac(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Previous studies disagree about the effect of out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation on traumatic brain injury. This study compares the effects of out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation versus emergency department (ED) endotracheal intubation on mortality and neurologic and functional outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE Uncontrolled exposure hypothermia is believed to be deleterious in the setting of major trauma. Prevention of hypothermia in the injured patient is currently practiced in both prehospital and in-hospital settings. However, this standard is based on studies of limited patient series that were not designed to identify the independent relationship(More)
OBJECTIVE To simplify airway management and minimize cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compression interruptions, some emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners utilize supraglottic airway (SGA) devices instead of endotracheal intubation (ETI) as the primary airway adjunct in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We compared the outcomes of(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Emergency cardiac care guidelines emphasize treatment of cardiopulmonary arrest with continuous uninterrupted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compressions. Paramedics in the United States perform endotracheal intubation on nearly all victims of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. We quantified the frequency and duration of CPR(More)
UNLABELLED The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force have highlighted public screening as an essential strategy for increasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) detection in persons born between 1945 and 1965 ("baby boomers"). Because earlier HCV screening efforts have not targeted emergency department (ED) baby boomer(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem in the United States. Although prior studies have evaluated the HCV-related healthcare burden, these studies examined a single treatment setting and did not account for the growing "baby boomer" population (individuals born during 1945-1965). METHODS Data from the National(More)