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BACKGROUND In a single-center study published more than a decade ago involving patients presenting to the emergency department with severe sepsis and septic shock, mortality was markedly lower among those who were treated according to a 6-hour protocol of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT), in which intravenous fluids, vasopressors, inotropes, and blood(More)
In this paper a novel approach is described for tree visualization using nested circles. The brother nodes at the same level are represented by externally tangent circles; the tree nodes at different levels are displayed by using 2D nested circles or 3D nested cylinders. A new layout algorithm for tree structure is described. It provides a good overview for(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Emergency cardiac care guidelines emphasize treatment of cardiopulmonary arrest with continuous uninterrupted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compressions. Paramedics in the United States perform endotracheal intubation on nearly all victims of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. We quantified the frequency and duration of CPR(More)
OBJECTIVE The emergency department (ED) often serves as the first site for the recognition and treatment of patients with suspected severe sepsis. However, few evaluations of the national epidemiology and distribution of severe sepsis in the ED exist. We sought to determine national estimates of the number, timing, ED length of stay, and case distribution(More)
OBJECTIVE Prior studies describe airway management by single EMS agencies, regions or states. We sought to characterize out-of-hospital airway management interventions, outcomes and complications across the United States. METHODS Using the 2008 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) Public-Release Data Set containing data from 16(More)
OBJECTIVE To simplify airway management and minimize cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compression interruptions, some emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners utilize supraglottic airway (SGA) devices instead of endotracheal intubation (ETI) as the primary airway adjunct in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We compared the outcomes of(More)
OBJECTIVE Emergency medical technician-basic (EMT-B) providers are not trained to establish vascular or intraosseous (IO) access on critically ill patients. This study was conducted to examine the feasibility of training EMT-B students to correctly place a commercial sternal IO infusion device (FAST-1). METHODS Twenty-nine EMT-B students attended a(More)
BACKGROUND In a departure from the previous strategy of immediate defibrillation, the 2005 resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association-International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation suggested that emergency medical service (EMS) personnel could provide 2 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) before the first analysis of cardiac(More)
BACKGROUND During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the interruption of manual chest compressions for rescue breathing reduces blood flow and possibly survival. We assessed whether outcomes after continuous compressions with positive-pressure ventilation differed from those after compressions that were(More)
OBJECTIVE Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems play key roles in the rapid identification and treatment of critical illness such as trauma, myocardial infarction and stroke. EMS often provides care for sepsis, a life-threatening sequelae of infection. In this study of Emergency Department patients admitted to the hospital with an infection, we(More)