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Governed by parasite and host factors and immunoinflammatory responses, the clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis encompasses subclinical (inapparent), localised (skin lesions), and disseminated infection (cutaneous, mucosal, or visceral). Symptomatic disease is subacute or chronic and diverse in presentation and outcome. Clinical characteristics vary further(More)
In 2004, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) maintains its status as a neglected, if not "most neglected" disease. Lack of affordable new drugs, still a basic unsolved problem, has also been joined by additional therapeutic obstacles including large-scale resistance to pentavalent antimony (Sb) in India and coinfection with human immuno-deficiency virus in(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is thought to promote intracellular infection, including human visceral leishmaniasis, by disabling Th1 cell-type responses and/or deactivating parasitized tissue macrophages. To develop a rationale for IL-10 inhibition as treatment in visceral infection, Th1 cytokine-driven responses were characterized in Leishmania donovani-infected(More)
BACKGROUND There is no effective oral treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), a disseminated intracellular protozoal infection that occurs worldwide. Miltefosine, an alkyl phospholipid developed as an oral antineoplastic agent, is active against visceral infection in animal models. We tested safety, tolerance, and efficacy of miltefosine in(More)
Human blood mononuclear leukocytes stimulated with toxoplasma antigen, concanavalin A, mezerein plus lentil lectin, or staphylococcal enterotoxin A secreted a factor (macrophage-activating factor, or MAF) that enhanced the capacity of human macrophages to release H2O2 and to kill toxoplasmas. The same lymphoid supernatants contained IFN gamma but not IFN(More)
To determine the relative contributions of respiratory burst-derived reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) versus reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) to macrophage-mediated intracellular host defense, mice genetically deficient in these mechanisms were challenged with Leishmania donovani, a protozoan that selectively parasitizes visceral tissue macrophages.(More)
BACKGROUND A firm diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) requires demonstration of the parasite in organ aspirates or tissue biopsy samples. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of non-invasive testing for antibody to the leishmanial antigen K39 by means of antigen-impregnated nitrocellulose paper strips adapted(More)
In the later stages of infection or after the host recovers, lymphocytes encountering antigens of the infecting organism confer upon macrophages an enhanced capacity to kill the same or unrelated pathogens (1). This process is termed macrophage activation (2). Over a decade ago, antigen-stimulated lymphocytes were found to release a glycoprotein(s) (3) that(More)
Natural killer (NK) T cells are activated by synthetic or self-glycolipids and implicated in innate host resistance to a range of viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens. Despite the immunogenicity of microbial lipoglycans and their promiscuous binding to CD1d, no pathogen-derived glycolipid antigen presented by this pathway has been identified to date.(More)