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Governed by parasite and host factors and immunoinflammatory responses, the clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis encompasses subclinical (inapparent), localised (skin lesions), and disseminated infection (cutaneous, mucosal, or visceral). Symptomatic disease is subacute or chronic and diverse in presentation and outcome. Clinical characteristics vary further(More)
Human blood mononuclear leukocytes stimulated with toxoplasma antigen, concanavalin A, mezerein plus lentil lectin, or staphylococcal enterotoxin A secreted a factor (macrophage-activating factor, or MAF) that enhanced the capacity of human macrophages to release H2O2 and to kill toxoplasmas. The same lymphoid supernatants contained IFN gamma but not IFN(More)
In 2004, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) maintains its status as a neglected, if not "most neglected" disease. Lack of affordable new drugs, still a basic unsolved problem, has also been joined by additional therapeutic obstacles including large-scale resistance to pentavalent antimony (Sb) in India and coinfection with human immuno-deficiency virus in(More)
  • S Sundar, F Rosenkaimer, M K Makharia, A K Goyal, A K Mandal, A Voss +2 others
  • 1998
BACKGROUND There is no effective oral treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), a disseminated intracellular protozoal infection that occurs worldwide. Miltefosine, an alkyl phospholipid developed as an oral antineoplastic agent, is active against visceral infection in animal models. We tested safety, tolerance, and efficacy of miltefosine in(More)
To determine the relative contributions of respiratory burst-derived reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) versus reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) to macrophage-mediated intracellular host defense, mice genetically deficient in these mechanisms were challenged with Leishmania donovani, a protozoan that selectively parasitizes visceral tissue macrophages.(More)
BACKGROUND A firm diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) requires demonstration of the parasite in organ aspirates or tissue biopsy samples. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of non-invasive testing for antibody to the leishmanial antigen K39 by means of antigen-impregnated nitrocellulose paper strips adapted(More)
Natural killer (NK) T cells are activated by synthetic or self-glycolipids and implicated in innate host resistance to a range of viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens. Despite the immunogenicity of microbial lipoglycans and their promiscuous binding to CD1d, no pathogen-derived glycolipid antigen presented by this pathway has been identified to date.(More)
Despite permitting uncontrolled intracellular visceral infection for 8 wk, interferon-␥ (IFN-␥) gene knockout (GKO) mice infected with Leishmania donovani proceeded to reduce liver parasite burdens by 50% by week 12. This late-developing IFN-␥ –independent antileishmanial mechanism appeared to be dependent largely on endogenous tumor necrosis factor-␣(More)
We have examined the temporal sequence of events leading to the formation of hepatic granulomas after the intravenous injection of L. donovani amastigotes into BALB/c mice. Parasite ingestion by permissive Kupffer cells (KC) occurred promptly, and local KC aggregations were the foci about which granulomas were subsequently formed. Infected KC were(More)
When administered at or near the initiation of experimental intracellular infection caused by Leishmania major, Toxoplasma gondii, or Cryptococcus neoformans, treatment with the immuno-regulatory cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12), induces protective antimicrobial activity. In contrast, once infections are established, IL-12 exerts considerably less or no(More)