Henry W . Murray

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Governed by parasite and host factors and immunoinflammatory responses, the clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis encompasses subclinical (inapparent), localised (skin lesions), and disseminated infection (cutaneous, mucosal, or visceral). Symptomatic disease is subacute or chronic and diverse in presentation and outcome. Clinical characteristics vary further(More)
In India, 320 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (209 in the state of Bihar and 11 in the neighboring state of Uttar Pradesh) received identical pentavalent antimony (Sb) treatment. Sb induced long-term cure in 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-42%) of those in Bihar versus 86% (95% CI, 79%-93%) of those in Uttar Pradesh. In Bihar, the center of the(More)
BACKGROUND A firm diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) requires demonstration of the parasite in organ aspirates or tissue biopsy samples. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of non-invasive testing for antibody to the leishmanial antigen K39 by means of antigen-impregnated nitrocellulose paper strips adapted(More)
To determine the relative contributions of respiratory burst-derived reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) versus reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) to macrophage-mediated intracellular host defense, mice genetically deficient in these mechanisms were challenged with Leishmania donovani, a protozoan that selectively parasitizes visceral tissue macrophages.(More)
Eleven cases of community-acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia occurred between 1979 and 1981 and prompted clinical and immunologic evaluation of the patients. Young men who were drug abusers (seven patients), homosexuals (six), or both (two) presented with pneumonia. Immunologic testing revealed that absolute lymphocyte counts, T-cell counts, and(More)
In experimental visceral leishmaniasis in normal mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6) acquired resistance to Leishmania donovani, a protozoan which targets tissue macrophages, depends upon T cells, Th1 cell-type cytokine generation and activated mononuclear phagocytes. In the intact host, initial control and eventual resolution of L. donovani hepatic infection in normal(More)
Clinical features of 49 episodes of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were compared with those of 39 episodes in patients with other immunosuppressive diseases. At presentation patients with the syndrome were found to have a longer median duration of symptoms (28 days versus 5 days, p = 0.0001), lower(More)
Co-treatment of mice infected with different strains of Leishmania donovani with a non-ionic surfactant vesicle formulation of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO-NIV), and sodium stibogluconate (SSG), did not alter indicators of Th1 or Th2 responses but did result in a significant strain-independent up-regulation of IL6 and nitrite levels by stimulated splenocytes(More)
In 1990, there was essentially one treatment regimen in use for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) around the world: 20 to 28 days of daily injections of pentavalent antimony (Sb). During the past 10 years, however, new agents have been tested alone or in combination, in more than 50 studies carried out worldwide. This renewed clinical effort was spurred by(More)