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Governed by parasite and host factors and immunoinflammatory responses, the clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis encompasses subclinical (inapparent), localised (skin lesions), and disseminated infection (cutaneous, mucosal, or visceral). Symptomatic disease is subacute or chronic and diverse in presentation and outcome. Clinical characteristics vary further(More)
BACKGROUND Some 50% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) worldwide live in the Indian state of Bihar. Liposomal amphotericin B is an effective treatment when administered in short courses. We wanted to determine whether the efficacy of a single infusion of liposomal amphotericin B was inferior to conventional parenteral therapy, consisting of(More)
Co-treatment of mice infected with different strains of Leishmania donovani with a non-ionic surfactant vesicle formulation of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO-NIV), and sodium stibogluconate (SSG), did not alter indicators of Th1 or Th2 responses but did result in a significant strain-independent up-regulation of IL6 and nitrite levels by stimulated splenocytes(More)
In India, 320 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (209 in the state of Bihar and 11 in the neighboring state of Uttar Pradesh) received identical pentavalent antimony (Sb) treatment. Sb induced long-term cure in 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-42%) of those in Bihar versus 86% (95% CI, 79%-93%) of those in Uttar Pradesh. In Bihar, the center of the(More)
  • H W Murray
  • 2001
In experimental visceral leishmaniasis in normal mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6) acquired resistance to Leishmania donovani, a protozoan which targets tissue macrophages, depends upon T cells, Th1 cell-type cytokine generation and activated mononuclear phagocytes. In the intact host, initial control and eventual resolution of L. donovani hepatic infection in normal(More)
BACKGROUND There is no effective oral treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), a disseminated intracellular protozoal infection that occurs worldwide. Miltefosine, an alkyl phospholipid developed as an oral antineoplastic agent, is active against visceral infection in animal models. We tested safety, tolerance, and efficacy of miltefosine in(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is thought to promote intracellular infection, including human visceral leishmaniasis, by disabling Th1 cell-type responses and/or deactivating parasitized tissue macrophages. To develop a rationale for IL-10 inhibition as treatment in visceral infection, Th1 cytokine-driven responses were characterized in Leishmania donovani-infected(More)
The capacity of BALB/c mice to acquire resistance to and eliminate intracellular visceral Leishmania donovani is T cell dependent, associated with a granulomatous tissue reaction, and correlates with the ability to secrete the macrophage-activating lymphokine, IFN-gamma. These responses appear by 4 wk after infection and are fully established by 8 wk. To(More)
Firm diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) requires organ aspiration and microscopic examination of tissue specimens. To determine the usefulness of noninvasive diagnosis by strip test detection of anti-K39 immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody in blood specimens obtained by fingerstick, 143 Indian patients with suspected kala-azar (fever, splenomegaly,(More)