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Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR). We show in transiently transfected HeLa cells that an AR containing 48 glutamines (ARQ48) accumulates in a hormone-dependent manner in both cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates. Electron microscopy reveals both types of aggregates(More)
One of the crucial steps in endochondral bone formation is the replacement of a cartilage matrix produced by chondrocytes with bone trabeculae made by osteoblasts. However, the precise sources of osteoblasts responsible for trabecular bone formation have not been fully defined. To investigate whether cells derived from hypertrophic chondrocytes contribute(More)
Metastatic cancer is extremely difficult to treat, and the presence of metastases greatly reduces a cancer patient's likelihood of long-term survival. The ZEB1 transcriptional repressor promotes metastasis through downregulation of microRNAs (miRs) that are strong inducers of epithelial differentiation and inhibitors of stem cell factors. Given that each(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The transcription factor SOX9 has been shown previously to have an essential role in the differentiation of a small number of discrete cell lineages. In the intestine, Sox9 is expressed in the epithelial cells of the crypts and is a target of Wnt signaling. METHODS To examine the function of SOX9 in the intestine, we inactivated the(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased signaling by transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) has been implicated in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma), a complex disorder of connective tissues characterized by excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components in systemic organs. To directly assess the effect of sustained TGFbeta signaling in(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer in young women tends to have a natural history of aggressive disease for which rates of recurrence are higher than in breast cancers detected later in life. Little is known about the genetic pathways that underlie early-onset breast cancer. Here we report the discovery of DEAR1 (ductal epithelium-associated RING Chromosome 1), a(More)
Elevated Aurora kinase-A expression is correlated with abrogation of DNA damage-induced apoptotic response and mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) override in human tumor cells. We report that Aurora-A phosphorylation of p73 at serine235 abrogates its transactivation function and causes cytoplasmic sequestration in a complex with the chaperon protein(More)
Zeins, the major seed storage proteins of maize, are of four distinct types: alpha, beta, delta, and gamma. They are synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a sequential manner and deposited in ER-derived protein bodies. We investigated the potential for producing sulfur-rich beta-zein and delta-zein proteins in leaf and seed tissues by(More)
Permanent and reversible genetic modifications are important approaches to study gene function in different cell types. They are also important for stem cell researchers to explore and test the therapeutic potential of stem cells. The piggyBac transposon from insects is a rising nonviral system that efficiently mutagenizes and mediates gene transfer into(More)
Aurora B is a mitotic checkpoint kinase that plays a pivotal role in the cell cycle, ensuring correct chromosome segregation and normal progression through mitosis. Aurora B is overexpressed in many types of human cancers, which has made it an attractive target for cancer therapies. Tumor suppressor p53 is a genome guardian and important negative regulator(More)