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The International Panel on MS Diagnosis presents revised diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS). The focus remains on the objective demonstration of dissemination of lesions in both time and space. Magnetic resonance imaging is integrated with dinical and other paraclinical diagnostic methods. The revised criteria facilitate the diagnosis of MS in(More)
New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis integrating magnetic resonance image assessment with clinical and other paraclinical methods were introduced in 2001. The "McDonald Criteria" have been extensively assessed and used since 2001. New evidence and consensus now strengthen the role of these criteria in the multiple sclerosis diagnostic workup to(More)
T1 black holes (BHs) on MRIs may represent either areas of oedema or axonal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis. BHs begin as contrast enhancing lesions (CELs) and evolve differently from patient to patient, and within the same patient over time. We analysed BHs formation over a 4-year period. Forty-eight monthly MRIs of nine non-treated multiple(More)
Several stimuli induce mature T cells to undergo apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) including specific Ag. We have demonstrated previously that Ag induces the death of encephalitogenic T cells in vitro and deletion in vivo, leading to amelioration of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We have now examined whether activated, myelin basic protein(More)
Myelin-specific T lymphocytes are considered essential in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. The myelin basic protein peptide (a.a. 83-99) represents one candidate antigen; therefore, it was chosen to design an altered peptide ligand, CGP77116, for specific immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis. A magnetic resonance imaging-controlled phase II clinical(More)
Viruses have long been suggested to be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). This suggestion is based on (1) epidemiological evidence of childhood exposure to infectious agents and increase in disease exacerbations with viral infection; (2) geographic association of disease susceptibility with evidence of MS clustering; (3) evidence that(More)
Human autoimmune diseases are thought to develop through a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide linkage searches of autoimmune and inflammatory/immune disorders have identified a large number of non-major histocompatibility complex loci that collectively contribute to disease susceptibility. A comparison was made of the(More)
Clinical trials have indicated that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can persistently suppress inflammatory disease activity in a subset of patients with severe multiple sclerosis (MS), but the mechanism has remained unclear. To understand whether the beneficial effects on the course of disease are mediated by lympho-depletive(More)
The potential of CD4+ T cells for cross-recognition of self and foreign Ags has important implications for the understanding of thymic selection, lymphocyte survival, and the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Here, we define the extensive flexibility of Ag recognition for three human CD4+ autoreactive T cell clones (TCC) by using ligands with single and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In vivo detection of cortical lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by MR imaging is hampered by several factors. Among them is the low contrast between small cortical lesions and surrounding cortical gray matter offered by present techniques. METHODS T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-recalled-echo (SPGR) volumes and 2D(More)