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The International Panel on MS Diagnosis presents revised diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS). The focus remains on the objective demonstration of dissemination of lesions in both time and space. Magnetic resonance imaging is integrated with dinical and other paraclinical diagnostic methods. The revised criteria facilitate the diagnosis of MS in(More)
New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis integrating magnetic resonance image assessment with clinical and other paraclinical methods were introduced in 2001. The "McDonald Criteria" have been extensively assessed and used since 2001. New evidence and consensus now strengthen the role of these criteria in the multiple sclerosis diagnostic workup to(More)
T1 black holes (BHs) on MRIs may represent either areas of oedema or axonal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis. BHs begin as contrast enhancing lesions (CELs) and evolve differently from patient to patient, and within the same patient over time. We analysed BHs formation over a 4-year period. Forty-eight monthly MRIs of nine non-treated multiple(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In vivo detection of cortical lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by MR imaging is hampered by several factors. Among them is the low contrast between small cortical lesions and surrounding cortical gray matter offered by present techniques. METHODS T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-recalled-echo (SPGR) volumes and 2D(More)
Although the major isoform of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the healthy adult CNS is the 18.5-kDa protein, other isoforms containing exon 2 encoded protein (21.5 kDa and 20.2 kDa) exist and are expressed primarily during myelin formation. Since remyelination is a prominent feature in MS lesions, we examined the frequencies of T cell lines (TCLs) specific(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Several studies suggest that grey matter involvement may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3T was used to investigate the presence of damage to the normal-appearing thalamus in MS and its relationship with disability. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four patients with(More)
  • S Xu, E K Jordan, +7 authors J A Frank
  • 1998
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of three-dimensional in vivo MR microscopy to depict the treatment effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in SJL mice with chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (crEAE). METHODS The experiments were performed at 4.7-T on 10 crEAE mice and on one set of control(More)
CD4+ class II-restricted T cells specific for self antigens are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of most human autoimmune diseases and molecular mimicry between foreign and self ligands has been implicated as a possible mechanism for their activation. In this report we introduce combinatorial peptide libraries as a powerful tool to identify(More)
Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques have had a major impact in the last 10-15 years in understanding and managing multiple sclerosis. This review summarizes the current uses of MR in multiple sclerosis, based on the proceedings of a recent international workshop, under four headings: (i) technical issues; (ii) role in diagnosis; (iii) natural history studies(More)
Various mechanisms have been proposed for the initiation of autoimmune responses by autoreactive T-cell clones. One of these, the molecular mimicry hypothesis, postulates that myelin-reactive T-cell clones are activated by foreign antigens. Until recently, sequence homology between self- and foreign antigens was considered necessary for cross-recognition to(More)