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MOTIVATION Comparison of read depths from next-generation sequencing between cancer and normal cells makes the estimation of copy number alteration (CNA) possible, even at very low coverage. However, estimating CNA from patients' tumour samples poses considerable challenges due to infiltration with normal cells and aneuploid cancer genomes. Here we provide(More)
Genome scans using large numbers of randomly selected markers have revealed a small proportion of loci that deviate from neutral expectations and so may mark genomic regions that contribute to local adaptation. Measurements of sequence differentiation and identification of genes in these regions is important but difficult, especially in organisms with(More)
The use of next-generation sequencing technologies to produce genomic copy number data has recently been described. Most approaches, however, reply on optimal starting DNA, and are therefore unsuitable for the analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, which largely precludes the analysis of many tumour series. We have sought to challenge(More)
Metagenomics, the study of microbial genomes within diverse environments, is a rapidly developing field. The identification of microbial sequences within a host organism enables the study of human intestinal, respiratory, and skin microbiota, and has allowed the identification of novel viruses in diseases such as Merkel cell carcinoma. There are few(More)
MOTIVATION Current high-throughput sequencing has greatly transformed genome sequence analysis. In the context of very low-coverage sequencing (<0.1×), performing 'binning' or 'windowing' on mapped short sequences ('reads') is critical to extract genomic information of interest for further evaluation, such as copy-number alteration analysis. If the window(More)
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common type of non-melanoma skin cancer and is dramatically increased in the setting of immunosuppression such as organ transplantation (Grulich et al. This magnitude of increase is similar to that seen in virus-related cancers, such as human herpesvirus-8 mediated Kaposi's sarcoma and Epstein-Barr(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of neoadjuvant anastrozole and fulvestrant treatment of large operable or locally advanced hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer not eligible for initial breast-conserving surgery, and to identify genomic changes occurring after treatment. METHODS One hundred and twenty post-menopausal patients(More)
HER2 overexpression/amplification is linked to trastuzumab response in breast/gastric cancers. One suggested anti-EGFR resistance mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC) is aberrant MEK-AKT pathway activation through HER2 up-regulation. We assessed HER2-amplification/overexpression in stage II-III and IV CRC patients, assessing relationships to KRAS/BRAF and(More)
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung kills over 350,000 people annually worldwide, and is the main lung cancer histotype with no targeted treatments. High-coverage whole-genome sequencing of the other main subtypes, small-cell and adenocarcinoma, gave insights into carcinogenic mechanisms and disease etiology. The genomic complexity within the lung SCC(More)
I am a senior scientist in Dr. Gary's Steinberg's lab. I supervise several projects that use optogenetics, imaging techniques and next generation sequencing to study post-stroke neural circuit dynamics and recovery mechanisms. My main interests are to study how the brain recovers from injury at both the neural circuit and molecular level, and to develop(More)