Henry M Epino

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BACKGROUND Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has rapidly expanded; as of the end of 2010, an estimated 6.6 million people are receiving ART in low-income and middle-income countries. Few reports have focused on the experiences of rural health centers or the use of community health workers. We report clinical and programatic outcomes at 24 months for a(More)
BACKGROUND Over the last decade, utilization of ultrasound technology by non-radiologist physicians has grown. Recent advances in affordability, durability, and portability have brought ultrasound to the forefront as a sustainable and high impact technology for use in developing world clinical settings as well. However, ultrasound's impact on patient(More)
BACKGROUND Minimizing death and ensuring high retention and good adherence remain ongoing challenges for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment programs. We examined whether the addition of community-based accompaniment (characterized by daily home visits from a community health worker, directly observed treatment, nutritional support, transportation(More)
Most isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae are mixed populations of transparent (T) and opaque (O) colony phenotypes. Differences in the production of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) between O and T variants were accentuated by changes in the environmental concentration of oxygen. O variants demonstrated a 5.2- to 10.6-fold increase in amounts of CPS under(More)
BACKGROUND Over the last decade, the diffusion of ultrasound technology to nontraditional users has been rapid and far-reaching. Much research and effort has been focused on developing an ultrasound curriculum and training and practice guidelines for these users. The potential for this diagnostic tool is not limited to the developed world and in many(More)
PROBLEM Hospitals in rural Africa, such as in Rwanda, often lack electricity, supplies, and staff. In our setting, basic care processes, such monitoring vital signs, giving drugs, and laboratory testing, were performed unreliably, resulting in delays in treatment owing to lack of information needed for clinical decision making. DESIGN Simple quality(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to determine the test characteristics for two different ultrasound (US) measures of severe dehydration in children (aorta to inferior vena cava [IVC] ratio and IVC inspiratory collapse) and one clinical measure of severe dehydration (the World Health Organization [WHO] dehydration scale). METHODS The authors(More)
Severe anaemia is a common presentation in non-pregnant adults admitted to hospital in southern Africa. Standard syndromic treatment based on data from the pre-HIV era is for iron deficiency, worms and malaria. We prospectively investigated 105 adults admitted consecutively to medical wards with haemoglobin < 7 g/dl. Those with acute blood loss were(More)
Depression, low health-related quality of life, and low perceived social support have been shown to predict poor health outcomes, including HIV-related outcomes. Mental health morbidity and HIV are important public health concerns in Rwanda, where approximately half of the current population is estimated to have survived the genocide and 3% is living with(More)
We evaluated peripheral blood tests to diagnose iron deficiency on medical wards in Blantyre, Malawi, where infection and HIV are prevalent. We compared full blood count, ferritin and serum transferrin receptor (TfR) levels with an estimation of iron in bone marrow aspirates. Of consecutive adults admitted with severe anaemia (haemoglobin <7 g/dl), 81 had(More)