Like a discovery game that requires players to earn the right to take on new challenges, Immune Attack compels its players to learn the rules of the immune system before it reveals deeper biological insight.
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB… (More)
1 (Still in Progress: Do not quote or cite, but comments welcome.) 'Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?' Alice asked the Cat?. 'That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,' said the Cat. 'I don't much care where-' said Alice. 'Then it doesn't matter which way you go,' said the Cat. '-so long as I get somewhere,' Alice… (More)
Founded in 1945, the Federation of American Scientists is dedicated to ending the worldwide arms race and reducing the dangers of nuclear weapons. Over the years it has played a key role in ensuring that the public debate over arms control, and other science and technology policy issues, is informed by clear, reliable, and unbiased information and analysis… (More)
1 The challenge The nation's system of highway transportation – Surface Transportation 2.0 – has provided the flexibility, speed, reliability, and efficiency needed to support a US economy constantly changing and constantly on the move. But innovations are badly needed if the system is to continue to provide such services in the future. Consider: Energy… (More)
This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the… (More)